The History Of Corn Whiskey

This chapter, which chronicles the evolution of corn whiskey, is summarized from Joseph E. Dabney's authoritative book on the Appalachian moonshine culture, Mountain Spirits1. Mountain Spirits is highly recommended reading if you are interested in a more detailed history of corn whiskey. To appreciate the roots of American whiskey distilling, which was born in the Appalachian frontier in the 1700s and 1800s, we must trace back to our Scottish, Irish, French, German, and English ancestors who...

Principal Types Of Construction

Tema Type Aes

Figure 11-36 shows details of the construction of the TEMA types of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. These and other types are discussed in the following paragraphs. Fixed-Tube-Sheet Heat Exchangers Fixed-tube-sheet exchangers Fig. 11-36b are used more often than any other type, and the frequency of use has been increasing in recent years. The tube sheets are welded to the shell. Usually these extend beyond the shell and serve as flanges to which the tube-side headers are bolted. This...

Baffles And Tube Bundles

Segment Baffle Heat Exchanger

The tube bundle is the most important part of a tubular heat exchanger. The tubes generally constitute the most expensive component of the exchanger and are the one most likely to corrode. Tube sheets, baffles, or support plates, tie rods, and usually spacers complete the bundle. Minimum baffle spacing is generally one-fifth of the shell diameter and not less than 50.8 mm 2 in . Maximum baffle spacing is limited by the requirement to provide adequate support for the tubes. The maximum...

Miscellaneous Issues And Problems Of Modernday Tempeh Production And Incubation

Tempeh Manufacturing

The incubation of tempeh is a delicate balance of temperature, airflow, hole size on bags or trays, and relative humidity. Some common problems observed are as follows 1. Hole size in incubation bags. This is an important feature and somewhat varies based on the incubator that the product is placed in. If the airflow, temperature, and humidity are all adequately controlled, it is possible to get away with a larger perforation than in an incubator with inadequate controls. As a rule, 1.5 mil...

Calculation Of Distillationcolumn Internal Reflux

Internal Reflux Model

In the design of distillation columns, engineers use internal reflux in their calculations rather than external reflux. Important indices for column separation ability are internal reflux distillate and boilup bottom-product ratios. Increasingly we are controlling columns on the basis of internal reflux rather than external reflux. The most common method of determining internal reflux makes use of external reflux flow measurement and the number of degrees of condensate subcooling see Figure...

Refrigerant Ph Diagram

Diagram Refrigeration

For a Carnot cycle where A Q TA s , the COP for the refrigeration application becomes note than T is absolute temperature K The COP in real refrigeration cycles is always less than for the ideal Carnot cycle and there is constant effort to achieve this ideal value. Basic Refrigeration Methods Three basic methods of refrigeration mentioned above use similar processes for obtaining refrigeration effect evaporation in the evaporator, condensation in the condenser where heat is rejected to the...

Other Fermentation Vessels

Quorn Airlift Fermenter

Some of the other forms of fermentation vesels will now be considered. These vessels have more limited applications and have been developed for specific purposes or closely related processes. Some are historical developments, such as the earliest forms of packed tower, others were being developed in parallel with the standard mechanically stirred fermenter during the 1940s, while other approaches are more recent. Aspects of this topic have been reviewed by Prokop and Votruba 1976 , Katinger...

Trouble Shooting Distillation Columns

Downcomer Tower Installation

France, Glitsch. Inc. ' For information about the authors, see p. 123 of the first article o this series. .Marc 19S9. p. 116. Overall, trayed columns operate via countercurrent liquid and vapor flow, with staged contacting for heat and mass transfer. Each stage is often modeled as a mixer-separator, with liquid-vapor contacting followed by the separation of liquid and vapor for transport to, respectively, the stages below and above Figure 1 . This description...

Packedcolumn Flood And Pressure Drop

Superficial Gas Velocity Pressure Drop

Pressure drop of a gas flowing upward through a packing countercur-rently to liquid flow is characterized graphically in Fig. 14-53. At very low liquid rates, the effective open cross section of the packing is not appreciably different from that of dry packing, and pressure drop is due to flow through a series of variable openings in the bed. Thus, pressure drop is proportional approximately to the square of the gas velocity, as indicated in the region AB. At higher liquid rates, the effective...

Basic Functions Of A Fermenter For Microbial Or Animal Cell Culture

Inner Structure Fermenter

The main function of a fermenter is to provide a controlled environment for the growth of microorganisms or animal cells, to obtain a desired product. In designing and constructing a fermenter a number of points must be considered 1. The vessel should be capable of being operated aseptically for a number of days and should be reliable in long-term operation and meet the requirements of containment regulations. 2. Adequate aeration and agitation should be provided to meet the metabolic...

Overview of malting and brewing

Micro Brewery Mash Tun

Brewer's yeast Saccharomyces can grow on sugar anaerobically by fermenting it to ethanol While malt and yeast contribute substantially to the character of beers, the quality of beer is at least as much a function of the water and, especially, of the hops used in its production. Barley starch supplies most of the sugars from which the alcohol is derived in the majority of the world's beers. Historically, this is because, unlike other cereals, barley retains its husk on threshing and this husk...

Biotechnology and the Brewing Industry

For the first 5,000 years that humans made and consumed beer, little was known about the actual scientific principles involved in its manufacture. Beer making was an art, practiced by craftsmen. Only in the last 150 years have biochemists and microbiologists identified the relevant organisms and metabolic pathways involved in the beer fermentation. In the past ten years alone, the entire genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (albeit, a lab strain, not an actual brewing strain) has been sequenced,...

The Fractionating Still

Fractionating Still

The Fractionating Still is a compact device for increasing the amount of condensation and evaporation of reflux. A fractionating still has a vertical tube called a fractionating column, filled with packing material, between the boiler and the final product condenser. It's important to note that the fractionating column is just a part of the whole still, just as the boiler is a part. If this column were empty and had no packing material, then it wouldn't be a fractionating column, but would...

Kerosene Hydrotreating

Kerosene Refining Process

The objective of kerosene hydrotreating is to upgrade raw kerosene distillate to produce specification products suitable for marketing as kerosene and jet fuel. Sulfur and mercaptans in the raw kerosene cuts coming from the crude distillation unit can cause corrosion problems in aircraft engines and fuel handling and storage facilities. Nitrogen in the raw kerosene feed from some crude oils can cause color stability problems in the product. For aviation turbine fuels ATF , the ASTM...

Trickling generator processes

In the vinegar fermentation, the rate at which ethanol is oxidized to acetic acid depends on the presence and availability of oxygen and the surface area represented by the air-liquid interface. In other words, the ability of acetic acid bacteria to perform the acetic acid fermentation is limited primarily by the diffusion or transport of oxygen from the atmosphere to the cell surface. It is possible to significantly accelerate the oxidation of ethanol by increasing the surface area to which...

Example In Lewis Sorel Method

Heating Curve Benzene

Is assumed where all of the overhead vapor is liquefied, this condensate being divided into two portions, one of which is returned to the column for reffyrc and the other withdrawn as overhead product. The bottoms are of itinuously withdrawn from the still or reboiler. See end of chapter for nomenclature. Consider the region bounded by the dotted line in Fig. 7-1., The only material entering this section is the vapor from the nth plate F , while leaving the section is the distillate D and the...

Laboratory fermentation systems

Yeast Fermentation Using Syringe

It is necessary to have appropriate laboratory scale fermentation systems in order to study the biochemistry that underpins brewery fermentation, to assess the properties of individual yeast strains, to screen and select new yeast stains and to develop novel processes. Much of this work may be carried out using conventional laboratory apparatus. This may range from the simple Erlenmeyer shake flask to the highly sophisticated fermenter fitted with a plethora of sensors and control devices...

The Isolation Of Resistant Mutants

The isolation of analogue-resistant mutants has already been discussed in the field of primary metabolism, where the rationale was that a mutant resistant to the inhibitory effects of an analogue, which mimics the control characteristics of the natural metabolite, may overproduce the natural metabolite. This approach has been adopted, or may be adopted, in a number of guises in the field of secondary metabolism. i Mutants may be isolated which are resistant to the analogues of primary metabolic...

Inoculum Development For Fermentation Of Fungi

Aeration 500 liters min agitation 150 rpm fermentation medium in 1000 liters fermentation tank Fig. 6.6. The inoculum development programme for the production of sagamicin by Micromonospora sagamiensis Podojil, 1984 . be seen that in the clavulanic acid process the spore inoculum is used to inoculate the final seed stage, in the Chlortetracycline process a vegetative stage is interspersed between the spore inoculated batch and the production fermentation, and in the sagamicin process the spore...

The Achievement And Maintenance Of Aseptic Conditions

Steam Trap Fermenter

Once the design problems of aeration and agitation have been solved, it is essential that the design meets the requirements of the degree of asepsis and containment demanded by the particular process being considered. It will be necessary to be able to sterilize, and keep sterile, a fermenter and its contents throughout a complete growth cycle. There may be also a need to protect workers and the environment from exposure to hazardous micro-organisms or animal cells Van Houten, 1992 . As has...

Compound still management

Offset Distillation Still Head Reflux

Choosing the type of condenser is simple compared to the question of how to control reflux and withdraw the product. There are three fundamental methods of accomplishing this Liquid management. Divide and distribute the liquid condensate directly. Cooling management. Divide the vapor into two flows by managing the amount of cooling in the reflux condenser. Vapor management. Divide the vapor into two flows mechanically. Liquid management The still head does two things taps into the reflux stream...

Propionic Acid In Hops

Proton Translocating Atpase

In the final step prior to fermentation, the wort is pumped into a special heating tank called the brew kettle. It is here that the wort is boiled and other important reactions occur.Be-fore the wort is heated, however, one more essential beer ingredient, hops, is added to the wort. Hops are derived from the plant Homu-lus lupulus in the family, Cannabinaceae , and although they were not part of the original beer formula, they have been added to beer since the Middle Ages. Why hops came to be...

The Isolation Of Mutants Which Do Not Produce Feedback Inhibitors Or Repressors

Mutants which do not produce certain feedback inhibitors or repressors may be useful for the production of intermediates of unbranched pathways and intermediates and end products of branched pathways. Demain 1972 presented several 'blue-prints' of hypothetical mutants producing intermediates and end products of biosynthetic pathways and these are illustrated in Fig. 3.12. The mutants illustrated in Fig. 3.12 do not produce some of the inhibitors or repressors of the pathways considered and,...