Si

n' j=i represents the covariance matrix for class i and the mean vector for class i is [139]

where rij denotes the number of observations in class i. Siy/(nj +n2H-----h ng—g) = Spi is an estimate of S. The w that maximizes wtSbw/wtSp;w also maximizes wtSbw/wtSivw.

Define the between-class scatter matrix Sb and the total scatter matrix ST as [139, 246]

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