In wheat-producing countries or areas, baked yeast bread is a major staple in people's diet. This is common in the major developed countries. Elsewhere, other forms of bread may be the major staple in meals. Baked bread may come in different forms, such as regular yeast breads, flat breads, and specialty breads. Nowadays, even retarded (chilled or frozen)
Table 31 Basic Steps in Dry (Fermented) Sausage Processing
Selection of meat for processing
Chopping and mixing of chopped meat with spices, seasonings and inocula at temperature about 10°C Stuffing the mixture in suitable casings Linking
Curing or drying for 1-3 months in rooms with temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation regulated according to the type of sausages being produced Packaging and cool storage
doughs are available to meet consumer preference for product similar to home-cooked foods. For countries or areas with less accessible energy, other forms of bread such as steamed bread and boiled breads are available. Fried breads are consumed mainly as breakfast or snack items. Table 32 lists examples of different types of breads (28-33).
There are different types of wheat available nowadays through centuries of breeding selections to meet production environments in various regions with diversified climatic conditions. Wheat used for making bread is hard wheat, soft wheat, or a combination of both to meet product specifications. Wheat kernels are milled with removal of the bran and germ and further processed into wheat flour. Traditionally, this flour is the major ingredient for baking bread. For some health-concerned consumers, whole wheat flour is the choice flour used in making bread nowadays. Wheat bran is also added to increase fiber content of the product. Table 33 lists the proximate composition of wheat and some common wheat products (28-30).
In the manufacture of various wheat-based breads and related products, the major ingredients are wheat flour, yeast, sourdough bacteria (optional), salt, and water. Other ingredients vary considerably with the types of product produced. They may be grossly classified as optional ingredients, additives, and processing aids. Each country has its own regulations and requirements. Table 34 lists basic ingredients, optional ingredients, additives, and processing aids used in the manufacturing of bread and related products (28-30).
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