Probiotic Cultures

LB and ST are the bacteria traditionally used in yogurt manufacture. Although these bacteria have some health benefits, they do not naturally inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. They do not survive the acidic conditions of the stomach and the bile concentration of the GI tract (18). The probiotic bacteria used currently in commercial products include members of the genera Lactobacillus (Lb) and Bifidobacterium (B). The Lactobacillus (Lb) strains that are mainly used in commercial production include Lb. acidophilus, Lb. johnsonii, Lb. casei, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb. gasseri, Lb. reuteri, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. plantarum. Bifidoacterium bifidum, B. longum, B. infantis, B. breve, and B. lactis are some of the Bifidobacterium strains that are used commercially (38). Therefore, for a product to be considered a probiotic, many of these strains are incorporated into the fermented dairy product. Typically, combinations of these strains are used. A product manufactured entirely with probiotic bacteria would require a long incubation time and would lower taste quality; therefore, it is common practice to manufacture products with both yogurt and probiotic cultures (39).

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