Fermented Liquid Milks

In milk-producing countries, it is common to have fermented milk products. These products are first discovered or developed by accident. Later, the process is modified for commercial production. Fermented liquid milks are similar to plain yogurt drinks. It is basically milk that has gone through an acid and/or alcoholic fermentation. The final product is maintained in the liquid form, as compared to yogurt that is mostly in the soft-

Table 18 Basic Steps in Feta Cheese Making

Standardization of milk with 5% fat, enzyme treated and decolorized Homogenization of milk

Pasteurization by standard procedure and cooling to 32°C

Inoculation with 2% active lactic starter as cheddar cheese followed by 1 hr ripening Addition of rennet at 198 ml single strength (prediluted, 1:40) per 1000 kg milk followed by 30-40 min setting

Cutting of the curd with 1.6 cm standard wire knife followed by 15-20 standing

Dripping of curd for 18-20 hr at 12-18 kg on 2000 sq. cm with pH and titratable acidity developed to

4.6 and 0.55%, respectively Preparation of cheese blocks of 13x13x10 cm each Salting 23% salt brine for 1 day at 10°C

Canning and boxing cheese blocks in 14% salt brine (sealed container) Curing for 2-3 months at 10°C

Soaking cured cheese in skim milk for 1-2 days before consumption to reduce salt Yield—15 kg/100 kg of 5% fat milk

Table 19 Basic Steps in the Production of Yogurt

Standardization of liquid milk Homogenization of liquid milk

Heat treatment or pasteurization of liquid milk at 90°C for 5 min or equivalent

Cooling of pasteurized milk to 1-2°C above inoculation temperature

Addition of starter (inoculation), 1-3% operational culture

Addition of flavor, sweetener, gums, and/or color (optional)

Incubation at 40-45°C for 2.5-3.0 hr for standard cultures

Breaking of curd (optional)

Addition of live culture (optional)


Storage at <10°C

Source: Refs. 16 and 17.

Table 20 Some Common Gums That Could Be Used in Yogurt Manufacturing


Name of gum


Modified gums

Synthetic gums




Carob gum





Gum arabic

Guar gum

Karaya gum


Soy protein

Tragacanth gum

Wheat starch

Cellulose derivatives


Low-methoxy pectin Modified starches Pregelatinized starches Propylene glycole alginate Xanthin

Polyethylene derivatives Polyvinyl derivatives

Source: Refs. 10 and 17.

Table 21 Some Common Yogurt Flavors

Retail flavor

Natural characteristic-impact compound

Synthetic flavoring compound available





Grape, Concord






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