Both Chinese and Japanese have fermented soy pastes available in their cultures and they are made in a similar manner. However, the usage of these two products is quite different. The Japanese use fermented soy paste, miso, basically in making their miso soup, and to a lesser extent, for example, in the marinating/flavoring of fish. Miso soup is common in traditional Japanese meals. The Chinese use fermented soy paste, dou-pan-chiang, mainly as a condiment in food preparation. Dou-pan-chiang can also be made from wing beans, and this is beyond the scope of this chapter. Table 46 lists the basic steps in the manufacture of miso. For detail information on miso and dou-pan-chiang, readers should consult the references for this chapter and Chapter 30 on fermented whole soybeans and pastes in this book and other references in this chapter (34-37,39).
Table 43 Production Scheme for Soy Sauce
Cooking of clean or defatted soybean, pressurized steam cooking at 1.8 kg/cm2 for 5 min Cooling of cooked bean to 40°C Roasting and crushing of wheat Mixing of prepared soybeans and wheat Inoculation with Aspergillus oryzae or sojae Incubation of mixture to make starter koji at 28-40 °C Addition of brine (23% salt water) to make moromi (mash) Inoculation with halophilic yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (optional) Brine fermentation at 15-28 °C Addition of saccharified rice koji (optional) Aging of moromi (optional)
Separation of raw soy sauce by pressing or natural gravity Refining
Addition of preservative and caramel (option) Packaging and storage
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