Traditionally, cheeses have been produced in small households without any special equipment. By the end of the nineteenth century, cheese production (in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States) was conducted under more controlled conditions requiring special equipment, and proper cheese plants were built. With time the dairies have become larger and many types of equipment have been developed.
Most of cheese manufacture can be split into the same steps/stages; however, each step will depend on the cheese variety. The process flow in the production of hard and semihard cheese is illustrated in Fig. 1. In the following, each step will be clarified.
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