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a comparison with a control strain nonbacteriocinogenic.

biogenic amines are hazardous to health due to their vasoactive and/or psychoactive properties (39). Biogenic amines have repetitively been shown to be present in meat products from both northern and southern technology (Table 4) (40-42). However, in most samples, the quantity of biogenic amines is lower in northern sausages than in southern sausages (Table 4). As an example, if we compare the level of biogenic amines in two northern and two southern products studied by the same authors (6,43), it varied from 30 to 130 mg/kg in northern products versus 298 to 371 mg/kg in southern products. The main amine found is tyramine and its concentration in southern product reaches the threshold of 100-800 mg/kg of food, which is considered unsafe by Ten Brink et al. (44). The second amine found in both technologies is putrescine, whose limit has not been laid down in food. Putrescine is not associated with symptoms but it can combine with nitrites to form carcinogenic nitros-amines (45).

Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas are frequently isolated from raw materials but also from sausages, and this spoilage flora can produce biogenic amines, especially during the first days of fermentation (46,47). Enterobacteriaceae produce histamine and cadaver-ine and Pseudomonas produces putrescine (48). Usually this spoilage flora is less inhibited by the southern technology than by the northern one. Enterococcus spp. mentioned as subdominant bacteria in meat products (7) produce biogenic amines and particularly high levels of tyramine (49). The hygienic quality of raw materials appears to be one of the main factors affecting biogenic amine formation in dry fermented sausages (44,50,51). Some strains of lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus and Kocuria, are also able to produce amines (52,53).

Table 4 Content of Biogenic Amines in Different Products from Northern and Southern Technologies

Products TRYP PHE PUT CAD HIS TYR Total

Northern sausages

Table 4 Content of Biogenic Amines in Different Products from Northern and Southern Technologies

Products TRYP PHE PUT CAD HIS TYR Total

Northern sausages

Belgian mg/kg DMa

nd

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