herb health. Reviews of animal milks are available in the literature. Table 1 lists the approximate composition of milk (1-6). In industrial countries, milk composition is standardized to meet a country's requirements. However, it is understood that the requirements in one country may not be the same in another, thus the composition may vary for the same product. International agreements to standardize some products are now available. However, products produced in different locations still can vary because of microorganisms and culturing practices used in their production.

Fermented dairy products can be grossly divided into three big categories: cheeses, yogurts, and fermented liquid milks. Within each of these categories, there are subcategories. Table 2 presents examples for each of these categories (1-6).

Table 2 Kinds of Fermented Dairy Products with Examples Kinds


Fermented liquid milks Lactic fermentation With alcohol and lactic acid With mold and lactic acid Concentrated Yogurts

Viscous/liquid Semi-solid Solid Powder Cheeses Extra hard Hard with eyes Hard without eyes Semi-hard

Semi-hard, internally mold-ripened Semi-soft, surface-ripened with bacteria Soft, surface mold ripened Soft, unripened

Buttermilk, Acidophilus

Kefir, Kumiss


Ymer, skyr, Chakka Yogurt

Strained yogurt Soft/hard frozen yogurt Dried yogurt

Parmesan, Romano, Sbrinz Emmental, Gruyere, Swiss Cheddar, Chester, Provolone Gouda, Edam, Caerphilly Rouquefort, Blue, Gorgonzola Limburger, Brick, Muenster Brie, Camembert, Neufchatel Cream, Mozzarella, US-cottage

In the manufacturing of fermented dairy products, various ingredients such as the milk itself, microorganism(s), coagulants, salt, sugar, vitamins, buffering salts, bleaching (decolorizing) agents, dyes (coloring agents), flavoring compounds, stabilizers, and emul-sifiers may be used. The use of these ingredients in fermented liquid milks, yogurts, and natural and processed cheeses are summarized in Table 3 (1-6).

Various microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and molds are used in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products to give the various characteristics in these products. Table 4 lists some of the more common dairy microorganisms and their uses in fermented liquid dairy products, yogurts, and cheeses (7-9).

Cultures of the different microorganisms are available in various forms, such as liquid, frozen, or freeze-dried. Examples of their usage in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products are listed in Table 5 (1-6).

Because the starter cultures are available in various forms, the preparation steps of these cultures before inoculation are different. Table 6 lists some of the preparation procedures used in the industry for different forms of starter cultures (1-6).

Table 3 Ingredients for Fermented Dairy Food Production

Fermented liquid Natural Processed

Ingredients milk products Yogurt cheese cheese products












(fat and milk solids)

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