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Figure 9 Behavior of different strains in sweet doughs. 10% sucrose, yeast 3%, T = 27°C.

Figure 10 Effect of yeast dosage. 0% sucrose, standard strain, T = 27°C.

a-amylases can be exhausted before proofing is completed. Adding fungal a-amylases at a level of 40,000 SKB units per 100 kg of flour prolongs fermentation by about 1 hr in standard bread-making conditions (Fig. 11).

4. Effect of pH

The internal pH of a yeast cell is of the order of 5.6 to 5.8 and varies very little. The enzyme systems involved in the metabolism of S. cerevisiae are intracellular as a whole, which explains why yeast is very tolerant to variations in the pH of a medium, within the range of 2 and 8.

At pH of between 4 and 6, the fermentative activity of yeast is at its optimum. These conditions are found in most bread-making processes with yeast where the pH at the end of final fermentation is of the order of 5.2 ± 0.2. This pH can be lower when using sourdough

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Figure 11 Effect of fungal a-amylases on fermentation rates. 0% sucrose, yeast 2%, T = 27°C.

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Figure 11 Effect of fungal a-amylases on fermentation rates. 0% sucrose, yeast 2%, T = 27°C.

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