a Koji-making materials. W: week; M: month a Koji-making materials. W: week; M: month taste, such as sweet miso, which uses more rice than soybean and less salt, and salty miso, which uses more soybean than rice and more salt. Based on their color, the miso can be classified as white miso (butter color), red miso (reddish brown color), and light-color miso (light yellowish/golden color). If differentiated by their fermentation methods, miso can be classified into natural fermented miso, quick-ripened miso, and nutrient-enriched miso. When judged by product appearance, there is granular miso and chopped miso. Processed miso is the miso with added sugar, oil, or meat.
B. Manufacturing of Miso
A flowchart on miso manufacturing is presented in Fig. 11 (11,12). 1. Raw Material
Soybean, rice or wheat, salt, and water (50% weight of raw materials) are the major components, and seed koji, seasoning and nutritional enrichment ingredients, preservatives, and ethanol are the secondary components.
a. Soybeans Among various soybeans, the yellow-type soybean that is rich in protein (40.3%) and lipid (21%) is suitable for miso processing. The proteins in soybean, rice, and wheat are rich in glutamic acid. The soybean for miso processing in Taiwan comes from the United States. It contains more than 20% lipid with a relatively high percentage of unsaturated fatty acid (more linoleic acid than linolenic acid). There is almost no starch in a mature soybean kernel. Soybean contains 34% carbohydrate, and the polysaccharides are mainly arabinogalactan, units of arabinose and galactose, and the oligosaccharides are composed of 5% sucrose, 3.8% stachyose, 1% raffinose, and a few verbascose. About 7.3% of soybean kernel is seed coats, which contains 12.2% moisture, 8.8% protein, 1.0% lipid, 85.9% carbohydrate, 4.3% ash, 8.7% cold water-soluble material and 13.5% hot water-soluble material. Comet and Kanrich are the two varieties produced in the United States suitable for miso processing.
The soybean selection criteria for miso are as follows:
1. Easy to cook and soften under mild steam cooking to give lighter color. Extensive cooking may soften soybean; however, it will enhance the color and denature protein excessively. Soybean should absorb 1.3 times the original weight of water before steam cooking. The higher-carbohydrate-content soybean possesses the higher water absorption and water-holding capacity.
2. Bright color after steaming. This is affected by the cooking conditions, temperature, and time. The color of cooked soybean influences the color of the final product. Therefore, soybean with light yellow seed coats, light-colored hilum, and a fresh crop are preferred.
3. Large-kernel soybeans, more than 1000 kernel per 250g.
4. Uniform in variety and size and containing minimal amounts of broken beans or debris.
b. Rice Wetland, nonwaxy, Japonica-type rice is preferred in miso manufacture. It should be polished to 92% (polished white rice). Other types of rice do not possess all the properties required for the making of characteristic miso. The predominant component in rice is carbohydrate, in which starch is primary, with no more than 1% each of dextrin, reducing sugar, and pentosan. The lipids are mainly oleic and linoleic acid in the bran. The important characteristics for rice as raw material for miso making are high moisture uptake, low viscosity, and high rice koji enzymatic activity. The rice koji should be able to dissolve easily and give strong sweet taste and aroma after saccharization. Table 5 lists the proximate composition of rough and polished rice.
c. Wheat Rye is preferred over barley as wheat miso raw material due to the convenience of husk removing. The polish rates for rye and barley are 75-85% and 6070%, respectively. The proximate composition of wheat and barley is listed in Table 6.
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