Because each semisolid dairy product is manufactured differently, there will be considerable variation with respect to starter culture, processing temperatures, ingredients, and fermentation time and temperature. All of these factors will influence the successful production of fermented dairy products containing probiotics. The methods used to manufacture stirred yogurt and yogurt drinks are best suited to probiotic incorporation following fermentation. Immediately before packaging, the probiotic can be stirred into the product. With set yogurts, the probiotic must be added during fermentation because stirring in the final stages of manufacturing would destroy the products' consistency (38). The chosen strain must first meet the technological and functional requirements and thus might compromise the full expression of the health properties.
The addition of probiotics to the manufacturing of cottage cheese can also vary. When the probiotic is added with the starter culture during fermentation, a high amount of the probiotic organism will be lost from the coagulum during draining of the whey. It is therefore very difficult to control the concentration of probiotics in the final product. During manufacturing, the whey-coagulum mixture temperature is raised to 50-55°C; this temperature can be destructive to the probiotic organisms. The addition of the probiotics with the cream and spices in the final stages of manufacturing offers the best chance of survival for the probiotic bacteria (38).
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