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FDM %, fat in dry matter as % (w/w) in cheese MNFS %, Moisture in non-fat substance as % (w/w) in cheese Lb., Lactobacillus, P., Propionibacterium a Varieties without smear bacteria are also made.

FDM %, fat in dry matter as % (w/w) in cheese MNFS %, Moisture in non-fat substance as % (w/w) in cheese Lb., Lactobacillus, P., Propionibacterium a Varieties without smear bacteria are also made.

and the cheeses did not ripen. The explanation could be found in the natural microbial flora that did not contain many thermophilic bacteria with the ability to survive the high cooking temperatures used in the Swiss recipes, and starter cultures were not used at this time. The environment around milk and cheese production was much colder than in southern Europe and almost never high enough to stimulate growth of thermophilic bacteria. A mesophilic microbial flora dominated completely. New cheese varieties were developed by decreasing the production temperatures, but to obtain larger eyes, somewhat higher temperatures than earlier were used. Two cheese varieties—Herrgard in Sweden and Sams0 in Denmark—are the results of this early meeting of Swiss and Scandinavian culture.

The cheese Herrgard does not contain any propionic acid bacteria (PAB), but descriptions of it in early literature reveal that they were present at low numbers in those days. PAB were never added but originated from the raw milk microflora, and they probably disappeared with the introduction of pasteurization of the cheese milk. Experiments were made to add them as a culture, leading first to the Norwegian cheese Jarlsberg and later to the Swedish cheese Greve as well as to the Danish cheese Svenbo—the latter, though, with thermophilic culture in addition to the mesophilic starter. Typical for those Scandinavian cheese varieties is the specific combination of PAB and mesophilic undefined starter and Lactobacillus paracasei as the main nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB).

Danish cheeses with small round eyes were developed using production methods that were introduced by Dutch farmers and cheesemakers living in Denmark. Today, these kinds of cheeses commonly are made using smear surface ripening in Denmark, which is in contradiction to corresponding Dutch cheese varieties, and the moisture content is typically higher in the Danish cheeses. The rather soft semihard cheese Danbo is the most common variety.

Reduced-fat cheese has been made for a long time in Scandinavia. The early varieties were made as low-budget cheese and were developed during the time when butterfat was considered to be the most valuable part of the milk. These low-fat cheese varieties have a fat in dry matter (FDM) content of 20% or 30%, and the properties of the latter may be quite similar to some of the normal fat cheese varieties with 45% FDM. However, their quality was not always as high as it was for the normal-fat cheeses. The growing demand during later years for delicious food with less fat has stimulated the development of new semihard cheese varieties with FDM of 20% or less. Specific ripening cultures may be used in such low-fat cheeses, as heat-treated lactobacilli are in the cheese varieties Kadett (20% FDM) and Vastan (20 or 10% FDM, respectively) that are produced in Sweden for the past 10 years. Magre is a Swedish reduced-fat cheese (30% FDM) that is made with the addition ofPAB.

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