With the advances in biotechnology, microorganisms with special characteristics for the manufacturing of fermented foods have become available. The most significant example is the approval by the FDA of Chy-Max (chymosin produced by genetic manipulation) used in the production of cheese. Its availability greatly reduces the reliance of chymosin from young calves, with economic savings. Other products with similar or other properties are also available in the market. Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria and yeasts used in the fermented food production are also available nowadays to reduce production cost. Gradual acceptance by consumers is the key to the further development and success of
Table 54 Basic Steps in Fermented Chinese Vegetables
Selection and cleaning of vegetables Cutting of vegetables (optional)
Wilting of vegetables for 1-2 days to remove moisture
Dry salting of vegetables in layers with weights on top (5-7.5% salt)
Fermentation for 3-10 days
Drying or pressing of fermented vegetables (optional) Addition of spices and flavoring compounds Packaging
Wilting of cut vegetables
Hot water rinsing of fermentation container
Filling the container with cut vegetables
Addition of 2-3% brine and other flavoring compounds (optional) Ferment at 20-25 °C for 2-3 days
Ready for direct consumption or packaging and cool storage Source: Refs. 50 and 51.
biotechnology (1-3,5,7,10,53-55). Readers should refer to other chapters in this handbook and other references available for further information.
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