AEROBIC FERMENTATION: A fermentation conducted in the presence of air. Usually the first part of the fermentation process.
ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION: A fermentation from which air is excluded; the second part of the fermentation process.
BODY: The fullness of a wine.
CAMPDEN TABLETS: Useful in winemaking for various sterilisation or purification purposes. They supply sulphur dioxide in convenient form.
CARBON DIOXIDE: The colourless, odourless gas given off by a fermenting liquor.
DRY: A wine is said to be dry when all the sugar in it has been used up by the fermentation: it is also said to have "fermented right out"
FERMENTING (or "working"): The process brought about by yeast acting upon sugar to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide,
FINING: Removing suspended solids from a cloudy wine by filtering or adding wine finings. FLOGGER: A wooden tool for banging corks home.
FORTIFICATION: Increasing the strength of wine beyond that possible by natural fermentation by adding spirit.
HYDROMETER: An instrument for measuring the weight (or sugar content) of a liquid.
HYDROMETER JAR: The jar in which a hydrometer is floated for a reading to be taken.
JELLY-BAG: For straining wines thoroughly.
LEES: The deposit of yeast and solids formed during fermentation.
LIQUOR: The unfermented, sugar-containing liquid which will eventually be wine.
MALO-LACTIC FERMENTATION: See p. 36.
MUST: The pulp or combination of basic ingredients from which a wine is made.
NUTRIENT: Nitrogenous matter added to the liquor to boost the action of the yeast; yeast food.
PROOF: Proof spirit contains 57.1% alcohol. 70 deg. proof really means 70% of proof spirit. Thus ordinary proprietary bottles of spirit will contain only 40% alcohol by volume
RACKING: Siphoning the wine off the lees to clear and stabilise it.
STABLE: A wine is said to be stable when there is no danger of further fermentation.
STOPPER: A cork or polythene bottle closure with a projecting cap.
VINEGAR: Wine which has "gone wrong."
VINEGAR FLY: The winemaker's biggest enemy. If a vinegar . fly gets at your wine it may turn to vinegar.
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