The Secret to Successfully Making and Baking Bread

Bread Making

Bread Making

Discover How To Surprise Family and Friends With Homemade Bread? Is Your Bread Coming Out Doughy Or Crumbly? Well, you don't have to be frustrated anymore by baking bread that doesnt rise all of the way or just doesn't have that special taste.

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Batch Fermentation Introduction

Batch processes have been around for many millennia, probably since the beginning of human civilization. Cooking, bread making, tanning, and wine making are some of the batch processes that humans relied upon for survival and pleasure. The term batch process is often used to refer generically to both batch and fed-batch operations. In the former case, all ingredients used in the operation are fed to the processing vessel at the beginning of the operation and no addition or withdrawal of material takes place during the batch run. In the latter, material can be added during the batch run. For brevity, the term batch is used in this text to refer to both batch and fed-batch operations when there is no need to distinguish between them. The term fed-batch is used to denote addition of material in some portions of an otherwise batch operation.

Liquid sponge process

The traditional methods of bread making, as described above for the straight dough and sponge and dough methods, require sufficient time for the initial or bulk fermentation to occur and for the dough to develop. In the past several decades, an emphasis on speed and economy of scale has led to newer methods of bread manufacture.These methods rely less on bulk fermentation and natural dough development, and more on mechanical dough development and a relatively short fermentation period. The straight dough method, for example, can be shortened considerably by adding more yeast and giving the dough just a few minutes of floor time, or perhaps even eliminating the bulk fermentation step altogether. The sponge and dough method can be similarly modified by reducing the flour-to-water ratio in the sponge (i.e., adding more water), thereby shortening the pre-fermentation time and producing a pumpable sponge. One of the best examples of the quick type of process is the continuous bread-making...

Types of Sourdoughs

Most sourdoughs used in both wheat and rye bread baking are still initiated by adding a piece of mature or ripe sourdough, also called mother sponge, but there is a tendency to use defined starter cultures with specific fermentation patterns or production of antimicrobial substances. This tendency increases as these cultures become commercially available. In commercial rye bread baking, bakeries can use their own adapted sourdough or, if they have quality problems due to unstable process control, they can add a commercial sourdough as a starter. Most bakeries in Germany and Denmark regularly add commercial sourdoughs composed of a well-adapted microflora derived from natural sourdough fermentation. Examples of commercial sourdoughs are the Sanfrancisco sour for wheat bread production (34) and the Bocker-Reinzucht-Sauer for rye bread production. Some prod- Starter cultures for sourdough fermentation are pure cultures of dried or freeze-dried LAB, or a mixture of LAB and sourdough...

Dough Properties and Bread Texture

Incorporation of sourdoughs in wheat bread making influences the gluten proteins and the viscoelastic behaviour of doughs due to the drop in pH value caused by the organic acids produced. Several investigations have shown that the addition of acid to wheat dough decreased the dough stability during mixing, and the acidified doughs became considerably softer than a nonacidified control dough (82-84). The main component of rye and wheat is starch, and its content has a crucial influence on the bread texture. It becomes sticky and pasty if the starch is degraded during the bread making due to too high activity of amylases. This problem is greater in rye bread making than for wheat bread, as the activity of the sprout-induced enzyme a-amylase is highest in rye (89). This is caused by rainy summers in the rye-growing area. Furthermore, the period from harvest to possible sprouting is extremely short for rye it can even sprout in the fields (89). One of the main functions of sourdough in...

Reduced Phytate Content by Sourdough

Whole-meal cereals are good sources of minerals such as K, P, Mg, Fe, and Zn but without treatment, the bioavailability is poor for minerals stored as phytate, an insoluble complex with phytic acid (myoinositol hexa-phosphoric acid, IP6). The content of phytate is 6 mg g rye grain (115), 3-4 mg g in flour of soft wheat and 9 mg g in hard wheat flour (116). Phytate accounts for more than 70 of the total phosphorus in cereals, and it can be degraded during the bread-making process due to the activity of endogenous phytase and thus liberate the bound minerals when the ester-bound phosphoric acids are hydrolyzed. The pH-optimum of rye phytase is found to be at pH 6.0 (115).

Preliminary Doughs

In order to provide a satisfactory account of the principal advances in sourdough production, it is necessary to take a look at the entire system of preparing preliminary doughs and to examine the role of preliminary doughs, in particular sourdoughs, in bread-making. This requires a means of classifying preliminary doughs that takes into account not only their functional properties but also the technological developments that have been put into practice in different geographical regions of the world. Essentially, the role of preliminary doughs in making bread and other bakery products consists not only in improving baking performance, crumb structure, digestibility, and chewiness, but also in delaying crumb staling and prolonging shelf life (6). In addition to this, preliminary doughs, like bread syrups colorized by pressure cooking (25) or mashes soaked in hot water, can be used to determine the color and texture of the crumb. Another important function of preliminary doughs consists...


Bread-making is a custom which has been handed down to us from prehistoric times, but the manufacture of bread as a highly specialized business is one of our recent industries. The somewhat recent invention of bread-making machinery and the introduction of exact methods of controlling the factors involved in the bread-making process have made possible the present popular use of the modern commercial loaf. Although within the last twenty years bread has improved to a marked degree, still the modern loaf is gradually changing. It is considered that we have much to learn about bread as yet. Many of those engaged in the bread industry feel that we are just now entering a period of great improvement in bread-making. The loaf of bread as we have it to-day represents the accumulated improvements of all ages and all peoples. The most important of all these improvements in bread-making no doubt was the introduction of the use of the leaven. We first hear of the art of leavening bread with...

Spoilage Of Bakery Products

Most vegetative cells and mold spores are expected to be killed by the high temperature in the baking process, thus after-contamination is the source of spoilage problems. Some heat-resistant molds can survive the bread-making process in some cases, but these organisms have not been reported as spoilage organisms on bread. Contaminants of wheat bread are mostly Penicillium species (90-100 ) and, to a lesser degree, Aspergillus and Clodosporium species (3). The most important mold species associated with wheat bread are P. commune, P. crustosum, P. brevicompactum, P. chrysogenum, P. roqueforti, A. versicolor, and A. sydowii (8). On rye bread, P. roqueforti is the major contaminant (9-11). In a 4-year investigation of rye bread in Denmark, P. roqueforti (27 ), P. corylophilum (20 ), and Eurotium sp. (15 ) (E. repens, E. rubrum) were identified as the most important species. Looking at all these isolates of the important spoilage organism, P. roqueforti, it was clear that they formed...

Technological Aspects Of Dough Fermentation

In sourdough fermentation, proliferation is brought about by a ripe sourdough (alternatively, by one in which metabolic activity has ceased) used as an inoculum (23). A portion of this sourdough is used to make a fresh mix, together with flour and water. All sourdough preparations are bulk fermentations, the sourdoughs acting as preliminary doughs to produce bread doughs. The proportion of inoculum in the sourdough determines the process and method of fermentation, depending on the ripeness of the sourdough required for making bread dough. Based on the ratio of fermented flour to total flour, the inoculum can range between 1 and 50 .

Regular Bread

There are three basic processes in commercial bread making straight dough process, sponge-and-dough process, and continuous-baking process. The choice of which process to use is up to the manufacturer and the equipment available in the baking plant. Table 36 lists the basic steps in the different processes. The major difference is in the way the dough is prepared and handled (28-30).


The major industrial enzymes from fungi are hydrolytic, and the major producing species are A. oryzae and A. niger. Amylases and glucoamylases are used for turning starches into sugars and oligosaccharides. Pectinases are applied in fruit juice clarification. Aspergillus proteases are used in bread making and in chill-proofing beer, and a thermostable phytase is used widely in the animal feed industry as an additive. Representative commercial enzymes produced by Aspergillus are listed in Table 3.

Bread Consumption

Bread Consumption Worldwide

Despite obvious increases in the size and scope of the bread-baking industry, the historical record has revealed that ancient bread-making is not all that different from modern bread manufacturing practices. Given the simplicity of the bread manufacturing process, perhaps this observation is not surprising.After all, bread-making requires only a few ingredients, a few simple mixing and incubation steps, and an oven for baking. In this chapter, the chemical, physical, and biological properties of these ingredients and the processes used for converting ingredients into doughs and breads will be described. It is no coincidence that the history of bread making parallels the history of human civilization. Bread, the oft-quoted staff of life is still one of the principle staple foods throughout the world, and has sustained human beings for thousands of years. During the Roman era, bakers had an elevated status and were widely respected. Bread was so important to the citizenry that it was...

Mixed Cultures

Other publications deal adequately with the subject of single-cell process. The key success of single-culture process is to provide the culture with a sterile substrate and environment with no contamination during the process. Single-cell process is a manmade situation classified as a controlled process because the substrate is prepared and processed in such a way as to minimize contamination. Examples of this type of process are wine making, beer making, bread making, single-culture dairy product fermentation, and vinegar production. The kinetics of growth and product formation are easier to control and monitor.


Such breads broken into water and allowed to spontaneously ferment in jars were of course the origins of beer. Preferences for bread per se shifted from a flat form to loaves, and wheat replaced barley as the main raw material, although rye has long played a major role in bread making in central and northern Europe. Fig. 12.1 Making bread.

Rye Sourdough

Sourdough is essential in rye bread making, and the tradition of rye sourdough fermentation corresponds to the rye-growing areas in the north, central, and eastern European countries, including the Baltic States, where rye bread constitutes a considerable amount of the bread consumption. Rye sourdoughs have been characterized from Finland (17), Sweden (18), Denmark (19,20), Germany (21-23), Austria (24), Poland (25), Czechoslovakia (26), Russia (27), and Portugal (28).

Flour Type

However, Henry and Saini (71) found only small amounts of low-molecular-weight sugars in rye (0.7 sucrose and < 0.1 of glucose, fructose, raffinose, and stachylose). The content of pentosans (arabinoxylans) in rye flour is high (6.5-12.2 ) (72) compared to wheat flour (2-3 ) (73), and they can be degraded to the pentoses xylose and arabinose by the corresponding enzymes during the bread-making processes (74).


The principal process variables are fermentation temperature and time, flour-to-water ratio, and type of flour. The fermentation time is the most important process variable because it directly determines the extent of the metabolic performance of the microorganisms. It therefore governs how sourdough fermentation is integrated into the overall bread-making process. The other process variables mentioned are further mutually dependent parameters that control the development of the properties of the sourdough (e.g., acidity, lactic to acetic acid ratio, viscosity, density). It is crucial that the properties of the sourdough are transferred to the bread dough and fulfil their functions until the baking process has been concluded. For example, when making bread from rye milled products it is important to reduce pH (below pH 4.6) of the bread dough by adding sourdough in order to inactivate the a-amylase and thus prevent excessive liquefaction of the leavened dough piece as a result of...


The taxonomy and nomenclature of Saccharomyces has been subject to rather regular and frequent revisions for more than a century. Although S. cerevisiae has long been one of the major species used in wine, brewing, and bread-making applications, the specific strains involved in the manufacture of these products are clearly different from each other and from laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae .The frequent changes in nomenclature have made it even more difficult to keep track of the particular species associated with a given fermentation.