Co

Circulation

Heat exchanger

Beer out

Beer out

Heat exchanger

Wort in-feed

Wort in-feed

Beer transfer

Heat exchanger

Fig. 5.47 Two-stage immobilised yeast reactor for primary fermentation (adapted from Andries et al., 1997b).

free and immobilised yeast concentrations were respectively 55 x 106 and 187 x 10 cells ml 1. The second stage vessel had a residence time of 16 hours and was also maintained at 24°C. The suspended yeast count in this vessel was 80 x 106 cells ml Apparent attenuation rates in each stage were respectively 35% and 78%. The system was reportedly run for periods of up to 6 months at a 'semi-industrial' scale and during this period steady-state conditions were apparently achieved. Both lager and ales were produced that were claimed to be good matches for conventionally fermented beers. Clearly, this approach would seem to offer much promise.

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