UK volume measures

Pin 4.5 gallons

Firkin 9 gallons

Kilderkin 18 gallons

Barrel 36 gallons

Tierce 42 gallons

Hogshead 54 gallons

Puncheon 72 gallons

Butt (Pipe) 108 gallons

Tun 210 gallons

Beer Beverage, usually alcoholic, produced by fermentation of an aqueous extract of a malted cereal and usually flavoured with hops or other bitter and aromatic substances.

Bitterness Bitter astringent flavour in beer derived from isomerised hop iso-alpha acids.

Break Precipitate, predominantly protein and polyphenol formed during wort boiling ('hot break') and wort cooling ('cold break'). Syn. hot and cold 'trub'. Carrageenan Negatively charged polysaccharide from the marine alga Chondrus crispus (Irish moss). Used to promote formation of hot break during the copper boil. Has also been used as a support medium in some immobilised yeast reactors. Centrifuge Used primarily for removal of yeast and some suspended solids at the end of fermentation, often referred to as green beer centrifuge. Centrifuges may also be used for removal of hot break.

Cereal cooker Mashing vessel used for solid adjuncts such as rice and maize grits, which require higher mashing temperatures than malted barley, for starch gelatini-sation and amylolysis.

Chill-proofing Treatments to remove polyphenol and protein components of beers, which may form permanent hazes when beer is cooled. Collection Process of filling fermenting vessels with wort.

Coloured malts Speciality malts used as adjuncts with standard malts, which impart colour and flavour to beer. Usually produced by high-temperature kilning. The severity of the heat treatment determines the colour, as in chocolate, black, brown malt etc.

Conditioning Synonymous with ageing. 'Warm conditioning' is performed in fermenter and synonymous with 'VDK stand' or 'diacetyl rest'. 'Cold conditioning' is the low-temperature storage for flavour maturation and attainment of colloidal stability, syn. 'lagering'. Also 'condition' (noun) referring to degree of carbonation in beer, particularly after secondary fermentation.

Continuous fermentation Process in which a fermenting vessel is fed continuously with wort and a concomitant continuous stream of beer is produced. Continuous maturation/secondary fermentation is a variation.

Cool ship Vessel, now very rare, used to collect hot wort from copper for holding prior to delivery to fermenter.

Copper {syn. kettle) Process vessel in which sweet wort is boiled, usually with hops.

Copper fining Process aids added to the copper to promote coagulation. Typically tablets of Irish moss (Carrageenan) or, occasionally silicates.

Cropping {syn. yeasting, skimming) Removal of excess yeast from fermenter.

Crystal malt Flavoured speciality malts produced by wetting a fully modified lightly kilned malt and then subjecting it to a further heat treatment which hydrolyses and liquefies the endosperm. After a further higher temperature kilning the grain interior becomes crystalline.

Diacetyl stand (rest) See VDK stand.

Dry hopping Addition of aroma hops to fermenter or cask for conferring intense hop flavours to beers.

Enzymes Specifically in brewing, enzymes are preparations, often relatively impure, which contain particular activities which catalyse reactions whose effects are beneficial to the brewing process.

Extract The concentration of dissolved solids in clarified wort. The percentage of water-soluble extract derived from a material using a standard test is termed the 'theoretical yield'. Extract of liquid adjuncts given in terms of their contribution to specific gravity and quoted as litre degrees per kg or barrel of adjunct. The total volume of wort containing all additions and ready for transfer to fermenter is termed the 'standard reference wort' for a particular product. The measured gravity of this wort is termed the 'original extract'. The proportion that is utilised during fermentation is termed the 'fermentable extract'.

FAN Free amino nitrogen, a measure of nitrogen content of wort or beer measured using a test based on the ninhydrin reaction (see TSN).

Fermentability Proportion of wort carbohydrate that may be converted to ethanol by yeast during fermentation. Usually given as ratio of fermentable to total solids content of wort.

Fermentable residue Fraction of specific gravity at completion of primary fermentation consisting of fermentable carbohydrate that is unused because yeast metabolism has been arrested by the conditions in the fermenter. 'Non-fermentable residue' is the fraction of specific gravity at completion of primary fermentation representing solutes, which cannot be utilised by yeast.

Fining Any agent (or the process) used to promote sedimentation of suspended particles, (see Carrageenan, Copper fining, Irish moss, Isinglass, White finings, Auxiliary finings).

Green beer Immature beer before conditioning.

Grist Charge of grain and other ingredients fed to the mill or the flour devolving from the mill.

Gyle Any batch of beer or wort as it proceeds through the brewing process.

Hanging fermentation (syn. sticking fermentation) Defective fermentation that slows or stops before the wort is fully attenuated.

High-gravity brewing Production of concentrated wort that requires dilution, usually after fermentation, to produce finished beer.

Hop back {syn. hop jack, montjeus) Vessels used for removing whole hop cones from wort after the copper boil.

Hops Whole hops are dried cones of female plant Humulus lupulus added to beer to impart bitterness and flavour. Rarely used as dried cones, now usually in form of an extract of which many varieties are available.

Hop isomerisation Conversion of hop alpha acids during the copper boil into the bitter tasting iso-alpha acids.

Hopping rate Concentration of dried hops used.

Isinglass {syn. white finings) Preparation of collagen with net positive charge prepared by treating fish swim bladders with acid. Used as a fining agent for beer, particularly for removal of yeast cells.

Krausen 'Rocky' or 'cauliflower' head formed at the surface of the wort during active primary fermentation. At the most active stage of primary fermentation is referred to as 'high krausen'. Also to 'krausen' is to add a proportion of actively fermenting wort to maturing beer in lager tanks to provide yeast and fermentable extract for secondary fermentation.

Lager Style of beer produced by bottom fermentation usually at relatively low fermentation temperature and originally subject to lengthy lagering process. Lagering Period of cold-temperature storage for bottom-fermented beers during which flavour maturation and clarification occurs.

Late hopping Hop varieties, or extracts, which are added to the copper relatively late in the boil so as to retain more of the hop oil fraction.

Lauter tun Vessel with false bottom used for separating sweet wort from spent grains. Liquor Synonym for water.

Mash (mashing, mashing-in) Mixture of grist and water. Process of mixing the grist with water and heating to prepare an aqueous extract.

Mash copper Vessel used for boiling portion of mash in traditional decoction mashing regime.

Mash mixer Stirred vessel used for preparing and heated mash prior to transfer to lauter tun.

Mash press Plate and frame filter press used for separating sweet wort from spent grains.

Mash tun Vessel used primarily in UK ale breweries for preparing sweet wort by a constant temperature infusion process and fitted with false bottom for separating sweet wort from spent grains.

Maturation Process step in which green beer is treated to develop its finished flavour and aroma (see Conditioning, Lagering and Ageing).

Mill Device used for grinding malted barley and other ingredients to form grist. Modification Extent to which the structural cell wall material of the endosperm of barley is broken down during malting. Measure of the quality of wort predictive of the amount of extract that will be liberated during mashing.

Original gravity Gravity of wort measured at 20°C before fermentation has com menced. This parameter can be calculated at any stage during the fermentation by measurement of present gravity and alcohol concentration and back calculation using standard tables.

Paraflow Wort paraflow or wort cooler, a plate heat exchanger used for cooling hot wort prior to delivery to the fermenter.

Pitching Inoculating wort with yeast to achieve a desired suspended cell count (pitching rate). In USA, syn. 'brink yeast', 'brink rate'.

Present gravity Gravity measurement made at 20°C. See also Original gravity. Primary fermentation Initial period of fermentation in which fermentable carbohydrate is utilised by yeast and converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide with the concomitant decrease in specific gravity.

Priming Addition of ('priming') sugar to beer for flavour but usually to provide fermentable sugar for formation of carbon dioxide during secondary fermentation. Process aids Any substance used in brewing which is not a primary ingredient but facilitates the processes occurring during brewing and which may produce residues which persist in the finished beer. Examples include enzymes, filter aids, fining agents and salts.

Racking Separation of green beer from yeast. Used to describe process of emptying fermenting vessels also to fill casks. Final specific gravity achieved at the end of primary fermentation is referred to as the 'racking gravity'.

Reinheitsgebot German beer purity laws, which prohibit the use for brewing of any ingredient other than water, malted barley, hops and water.

Ruh German brewing term. See VDK stand.

Run-off Removal of sweet wort from mash or lauter tun.

Secondary fermentation Any process stage after primary fermentation that requires the activity of yeast.

Sparging Spraying bed of settled grains in lauter or mash tun with (sparge) liquor to wash out entrained wort. Occasionally used to describe the bubbling of gases (especially air or oxygen) through wort in fermenter. Trub See Break.

TSN Total soluble nitrogen, a measure of the nitrogen content of wort. Now rarely used, the fraction of nitrogen in malt which remains dissolved after a standard period of boiling is referred to as the permanently soluble nitrogen ('PSN') (taken to be TSN x 0.94).

Tun Originally a brewing vessel made by coopering, now any vessel used in brewing. Underback Vessel in which sweet wort is collected from mash tun and held before delivery to the copper.

Underletting Method of raising temperature of contents of mash tun by pumping hot liquor in from the base.

VDK stand (rest) Period of warm storage in fermenter after completion of primary fermentation during which yeast assimilates vicinal diketones (VDK) and reduces them to less flavour-active metabolites. In German, Ruh storage. One of primary functions of warm conditioning.

Wort Aqueous extract of malted barley and other sources of extract ('sweet wort') boiled with hops to produce bittered wort, which forms the starting material for fermentation.

Whirlpool Vessel into which hot wort is discharged from the copper and held (whirlpool stand) thereby allowing hot break to form a sediment via a hydrocyclone action.

Yeast food Proprietary preparations containing salts, vitamins and amino acids used as supplements where nutrient deficiencies in wort are suspected

Brewing Yeast and Fermentation Chris Boulton, David Quain Copyright © 2001 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd

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