Is used in the manufacture of wines and brandies. It is formed by digesting sugar in a solution of acetic acxd ; and some manufacturers digest or saturate any given quantity cf the sugar to the consistence of paste. With water acidulated with sulphuric icid to the strength of common vinegar, the fluid ia L
after digesting for two weeks, evaporated by solar or artificial heat.
This sugar is used for giving a sweetish, acidulous taste to wines, and a vinous taste to brandy, but the same ends can be obtained by the assistance of sugar and acid, without farther preparation.
Is a yellow coloring resinous substance. This gum is soluble in water, forming a yellow opaque emulsion. It is dissolved by alcohol, and a golden yellow tincture results, which is rendered opaque by the addition of water.
So intense is the color of this resin that cne part communicates a perceptible yellowness to ten thousand of water.
Is intensely bitter, without being nauseous, and the bitter principle is extracted by water and alc-ohcl. Gentian enters largely into the composition of tho different formulas for bitters.. See Bitters.
The specific gravity of liquids affords one of tLi best tests for their purity. The instrument coo?
njpftly used for this purpose is Baume's hydrometer. This consists of a glass bulb loaded at one end, and drawn out at the other into a tube en which the scale is marked. That used for alcohol is graduated by loading it until it sinks to the foot of the stem (which is marked zero), in a solution of one part of common salt in nine parts of water. It is then p^it into water, and the place to which it sinks is marked 10° of the scale, which is constructed from these data.
Owing to its peculiar, though feebly aromatic, taste, honsy is one of the most useful articles that can be found for giving a fine body, and the apparent virtues of both brandy and wine to the palate when used in imitating liquors or wines. "When used in the finer liquors, it may sometimes need clarifying ; but, generally, if it should be heated and strained, wiii answer ail purposes. The usual impurities are earth, sand, and coloring.
Is only used for its coloring substance, which it yields best to a solution of sulphuric acid. The blue from ijdigo is only used for cordials.
iodine la used to indicate the presence of starch in liquors ; in this manner it used in detecting French brandies. See chapter on " Ascertaining the Purity of Brandies."
Imparts its color to water and alcohol; the color that is imparted to boiling water is of a much warmer tone than that of any ether ; the color is of a deep red, bordering on purple. This is suited for the wines, and is sometimes combined with burnt sugar, in coloring brandy.
Is sometimes used in manufacturing liquors ; the objection to its use is, that it contains a large portion of charcoal, and that it ib indebted to it for its own color ; this charcoal being in such minute particles, that their removal is attended with great difficulty, as finings will have no effect on them. It is exceed ingly difficult to render a fluid transparent that holds molasses in solution, and for this reason coloring for liquors should never be prepared from molasses, and coloring, from this source, may be known by the heavy color it leaves in liquor.
Or clean spirit, is a spirit of variable strength, say from 40 to TO per cent, of alcohol. This spirit is colorless and inodorous, though, as usually found, it has the odor of rum, or acetic e+her, which is generally added to conceal some slight trace of remaining grain oil. The only reliable tests for this spirit are the hydrometer, and nitrate of silver ; the former indicating the per centage of alcohol, and the la tter that of grain oil. And neither should this spirit, when drunk, or after having been drunk, leave any disagreeable or heavy sensation in the throat or on the palate, and all the disagreeable and stinging sensations should pass off without leaving the slightest traces of astringency. roughness, acridness, or of pungency iu the mouth or throat, as these indications would point to the usual adulterations of acrimonious Bubstances. These remarks will apply to any other liquor for detecting adulterations.
nitrate of silver.
This is used in solution for detecting grain oil in liquors ; the silver throws the oil to the surface of the liquid in the form of a black powder; this will serve to detect fictitious liquors generally, or at least as far aa common gr ain spirit may enter into their composition.
lied ana black oak are best suited for the manufacture of liquors, both for coloring ana tannin ; the bark is best suited for brandies, as it yields a fine brown color, and its bitter principle adds a pleasant taste to the liquor. The color can be obtained either by infusing the barb in water cr spirit. Sulphuric acid is sometimes added to liquor colored with this bark, as the acid gives to the liquid a bright trans parency.
In some manufactories oak bark coloring is used to the exclusion of sugar coloring, for brandies. The coloiing is prepared from the bark by infusing it in barrels, along with proof spirit; fresh bark is added to the spirit until it becomes an amber color it is then used in the same manner as biandy coloring.
Care should be observed that no metallic body comes in contact with liquid containing tannin, either in the form of oak bark, catechu, or tannic acid, as the color must to a greater of less extent, become contaminated.
The most convenient mode of discharging oak bark coloring, or tannin, m any form, is by a solution of gelatine, composed of one to three ounces c p isinglass, beat line, or to shreds, and dissolved in warm water, two pints, and when cold, whisk to a froth with water, and add it to forty gallons oi spirit.
Oatmeal, rice flour. and wheatcn flour, are for giving a body, &c., by filtration, to spirits.
The rationale of this process is, that the flour alluded to is of a feebly sweetish taste, and is composed (mechanically) of minute particles, which is the result of grinding and bolting. The spirit, in filtering through a body of this flour, becomes charged with a portion of these particlcs. Now the natural taste of the spirit is hot and pungent; this taste is modified, softened, mellowed, by the addition of these particles of flour. Without lessening its strength, it adds to the density cf the spirit, and hence an oily taste and appearance.
The particles alluded to should not be discerned by the naked eye; this is prevented by placing a few folds of muslin at the bottom of the flour ; this muslin strains off all the coarser particles, or prevents their passage.
Oaten meal and wheaten flour are used for color ed liquors, viz. brandy, whiskey, <fcc. Eice flow is used for white liquors,, viz. gin, and all liquors that are uneolored.
Somo manufacturers make use of equal quantities of either wheat Hour or oatmeal and rice Hour.
pejlter—lono. cayenne, and elack.
Of the different varieties of pepper, none answer for the purpose of giving a false strength to liquors, except Guinea pepper ; a tincture prepared from this va.riety has a taste analogous to alcohol, whereas the taste from the other varieties remains on the palate a considerable length of time after being swallowed.
It is usual in preparing large quantities of the above tincture, to add a portion of long or cayenne, to mercase the strength.
This is a powerful acrimonious substance, which is used in the form of a tincture for giving a false strength to liquors generally, and also to vinegar. Bee Pellitory.
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