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Packing material

Surplus sludge

Fresh water, nutrient solution

Recirculation circuit pH control

Waste gas

Figure 3. Scheme of a closed single-layer biofilter system.

Treated gas

Treated gas

Waste gas

Fresh water

Filter material

Biofilter

Fresh water

Filter material

Particulate Load Humidifier filter equalization

Biofilter agents. Among these, simple single-layer systems, often accurately controlled and monitored, but scarcely flexible and requiring large space, can be used for VOC treatment. Multiple-layer systems, characterized by increased complexity and cost but less space requirements, consist ofsep-arately supported layers that allow optimal growth conditions for different microbial populations in each stage; a better control of the bed environment during the treatment of pollutant mixtures is also achieved.

More sophisticated and very promising configurations have been successfully tested on bench- or pilot-scale projects for the treatment of VOC mixtures, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene), and reduced-sulfur compounds, among which there are multistage, modular, and step-feed systems, that in general are characterized by better control and flexibility, but higher costs and operative complexity.

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