with steady-state solutions shown in Table 5. A growth model on the limiting substrate must be adopted to further complete the system description. Minimal cell growth will occur in the second stage if no additional substrate is added, because the majority of substrate is consumed in the first stage. Thus, non-growth-related cellular behavior

Feeding additional substrate to the second stage allows for more growth to occur. In addition, the dilution rate in the second stage is larger than the maximum specific growth rate of the organism because the second stage has a continuous feed of cells.

Enzyme Reaction. Enzyme reactions may also be carried out in multiple CSTRs. The performance of CSTRs in series approaches that of a single PFR while maintaining the good mixing characteristics of the stirred-tank reactor (37). Considering a first-order enzymatic reaction for substrate conversion (v = k X S), the reactor design equation for a single CSTR can be written as

Table 5. Steady-State Solutions to Material Balances for a Two-Stage Chemostat

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