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See also Adsorbents, inorganic; Adsorption,


of the material-fluid interface, affecting material performance in a number of bioprocess and biomedical applications. Performance of immobilized enzyme bioreactors, purification of therapeutic proteins in the biotech industry, drug formulation strategies, bacterial adhesion and contamination of industrial process equipment, and cell adhesion to natural and synthetic materials in the body are only a few examples of processes impacted by protein behavior at interfaces. The key impediment to needed progress in all these areas continues to be our inability to predict what the eventual make-up and nature of these films will be under a given set of conditions. Protein interactions with solid surfaces have been studied for decades, and several reviews are available (1-5). In this treatment, we describe some generally well-understood, important results that have provided a basis for meeting the challenges facing engineers and scientists in this area.

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