2. Brit. Pat. 14,224 (1900), R. von Ostrejko; Fr. Pat. 304,867 (1900); Ger. Pat. 136,792 (1901); U.S. Pat. 739,104 (1903).

3. J.W. Hassler, Forest Products J. 8, 25A-27A (1958).

4. J.W. Hassler, Activated Carbon, Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1963, pp. 1-14. A comprehensive account of the development and use of activated carbon products to about 1960.

5. R.V. Carrubba, J.E. Urbanic, N.J. Wagner, and R.H. Zan-itsch, AIChESymp. Ser. 80, 76-83 (1984).

6. B. McEnaney and T.J. Mays, in H. Marsh ed., Introduction to Carbon Science, Butterworths, London, 1989, pp. 153-196. A good introduction to carbon science in general.

7. H. Marsh and J. Butler, in K.K. Unger, J. Rouquerol, K.S.W. Sing, and H. Kral eds., Characterization of Porous Solids, Proceedings of the IUPAC Symposium (COPS I), Bad Soden a.Ts., FRG, Apr. 26-29, 1987, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1988, pp. 139-149.

8. K.S.W. Sing et al., Pure Appl. Chem. 57, 603-619 (1985).

9. S. Brunauer, P.H. Emmett, and E. Teller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60, 309-319 (1938).

10. S.J. Gregg and K.S.W. Sing, Adsorption, Surface Area, and Porosity, 2nd ed., Academic Press, London, 1982. An indispensable text on the interpretation and significance of adsorption data.

11. H. Marsh, D. Crawford, T.M. O'Grady, and A. Wennerberg, Carbon 20, 419-426 (1982).

13. M.M. Dubinin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 46, 351-356 (1974).

15. J. Zawadzki, in P.A. Thrower ed., Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, vol. 21, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989, pp. 147380. Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, published in 23 volumes through 1991, is a primary source of excellent review articles on carbon, many relevant to activated carbon.

16. D. Atkinson, A.I. McLeod, K.S.W. Sing, and A. Capon, Carbon 20, 339-343 (1982).

17. J.M. Solar, C.A. Leon y Leon, K. Osseo-Asare, and L.R. Ra-dovic, Carbon 28, 369-375 (1990).

18. K.D. Henning, W. Bongartz, and J. Degel, 19thBiennial Conference on Carbon, Penn State University, Pa., June 25-30, 1990, extended abstracts, pp. 94-95.

19. Product data bulletins from activated carbon manufacturers, Calgon Carbon Corp., 1990, American Norit Co., 1990, and Westvaco Corp., 1988.

21. F. Derbyshire and M. Thwaites, Proc. 4th Australian Coal Science Conf., Brisbane, Australia, Dec. 3-5, 1990, pp. 372379.

22. U.S. Pat. 3,976,597 (Aug. 24, 1976), A.J. Repik, C.E. Miller, and H.R. Johnson (to Westvaco Corp.).

23. W. Gerhartz, Y.S. Yamamoto, and F. Thomas Campbell eds., Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 5th ed., vol. A5,VCH, New York, 1986, pp. 124-140. Good descriptions of activation processes.

24. Product literature on Pittsburgh activated carbon, Pittsburgh Coke & Chemical Co. (now Calgon Carbon Corp.), Pittsburgh, Pa., ca 1960.

25. U.S. Pat. 4,014,817 (Mar. 29, 1977), B.C. Johnson, R.K. Sinha, and J.E. Urbanic (to Calgon Corp.).

26. A. Cameron and J.D. MacDowall, in J.M. Haynes and P. Rossi-Doria eds., Principles and Applications of Pore Structural Characterization, Proceedings of the RILEM/CNR International Symposium, Milan, Italy, Apr. 26-29, 1983, J.W. Arrowsmith, Ltd., Bristol, U.K., 1985, pp. 251-275.

27. R.C. Bansal, J.-B. Donnet, and F. Stoeckli, Active Carbon, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1988, p. 8. A modern treatise on activated carbon based on a comprehensive review of the literature.

28. U.S. Pat. 4,082,694 (Apr. 4, 1978), A.N. Wennerberg and T.M. O'Grady (to Standard Oil Co.).

29. T. Kasuh, D.A. Scott, and M. Mori, Proceedings of an International Conference on Carbon, The University of Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K., Sept. 18-23, 1988, pp. 146-148.

30. Product literature on activated carbon cloth, Charcoal Cloth Ltd., U.K., 1985, and on C-tex products, Siebe Gorman & Co., Ltd., U.K., 1985.

31. Product literature on KYNOL activated carbon fibers and cloths, GUN EI Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Japan, 1987; product literature on AD'ALL activated carbon fibers, Uni-tika, Ltd., Japan, 1989.

32. Product literature on KURASHEET activated carbon foam sheets, Kuraray Chemical Co., Ltd., Japan, 1987.

33. AWWA Standard for Granular Activated Carbon, ANSI/ AWWA B604, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo., 1991.

34. AWWA Standard for Powdered Activated Carbon, ANSI/ AWWA B600, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo., 1990.

35. The Economics of Activated Carbon, 3rd ed., Roskill Information Services, London, 1990.

36. J. Goin, V. von Schuller-Goetzburg, and Y. Sakuma, Chemical Economics Handbook—SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., 1989.

37. Wertheim Schroder, Calgon Carbon Corp., Company Report No. 955346, Mar. 19, 1990.

38. S. Irving-Monshaw, Chem. Eng. 97(2), 43-46 (1990).

39. W.G.P. Schuliger, WaterworldNews 4(1), 15-17 (1988).

40. R.M. Clark and B.W. Lykins, Jr., Granular Activated Carbon—Design, Operation, and Cost, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Mich., 1989, pp. 295-338.

41. P.N. Cheremisinoff and F. Ellerbusch, Carbon Adsorption Handbook, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1978, pp. 539-626. An excellent reference book on activated carbon, ranging from theoretical to applied aspects.

42. Product literature on PACT systems, Zimpro/Passavant, Inc., Rothschild, Wis., 1990.

43. W.E. Koffskey and B.W. Lykins, Jr., J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 82(1), 48-56 (1990).

44. A. Yehaskel, Activated Carbon—Manufacture and Regeneration, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, N.J., 1978, pp. 202-217. A dated, but still useful summary of key patent literature.

45. P.N. Cheremisinoff, Pollut. Eng. 17(3), 29-38 (1985).

46. R.G. Rice and C.M. Robson, Biological Activated Carbon— Enhanced Aerobic Biological Activity in GAC Systems, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1982, 611 pp.

47. Department of Defense Military Specifications, MIL-C-0013724D(EA), Sept. 22, 1983; MIL-C-0013724D(EA) Amendment 1, Mar. 5, 1986; and MIL-C-17605C(SH), Mar. 22, 1989.

48. S.J. Gregg and K.S.W. Sing, Adsorption, Surface Area, and Porosity, 1st ed., Academic Press (London) London, 1967, pp. 308-355.

49. H.M. Rootare, Advanced Experimental Techniques in Powder Metallurgy, Plenum, New York, 1970, pp. 225-252. A comprehensive review of the use of mercury penetration to measure porosity.

50. G. Horvath and K. Kawazoe, J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 16, 470475 (1983).

51. D. Dollimore and G.R. Heal, J. Appl. Chem. 14, 109-114 (1964).

52. M.M. Dubinin and H.F. Stoeckli, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 56, 34-42 (1980).

53. C. Orr, Jr., Powder Technol. 3, 117-123 (1970).

54. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 15.01, Section 15, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989.

55. 1985-1986 Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, vol. 2, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C., 1987, p. 1475.

56. National Research Council, Assembly of Life Sciences, Division of Biological Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, and Committee on Codex Specifications, Food Chemicals Codex, 3rd ed., National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1981, pp. 70, 71.

57. American Society of Civil Engineers, American Water Works Association and Conference of State Sanitary Engineers, Water Treatment Plant Design, American Water Works Association, New York, 1969, p. 297.

58. J.W. Hassler, Purification with Activated Carbon, 3rd ed., Chemical Publishing, New York, 1974. Contains much ofthe information given in Ref. 4 but with more emphasis on the commercial uses of activated carbon.

59. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Process Design Manual for Carbon Adsorption, Swindell-Dressler, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1971, pp. 3-68.

60. Material safety data sheets on activated carbon products, available from the manufacturers, 1991.

61. R.A. Hutchins, Chem. Eng. 87(2), 101-110 (1980). Aparticu-larly useful paper on liquid-phase adsorption.

62. M. Suzuki, Adsorption Engineering, Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo and Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1990, pp. 11, 35-62.

63. T.F. Speth and R.J. Miltner, J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 82(2), 72-75 (1990).

64. F.L. Slejko ed., Adsorption Technology, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1985, pp. 23-32. A good account of the theory, design, and application of adsorption systems.

65. American Water Works Association, Water Quality and Treatment, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971, pp. 1-216.

66. W.J. Weber, Jr. and B.M. Van Vliet, in I.H. Suffet and M.J. McGuire eds., Activated Carbon Adsorption of Organics from the Aqueous Phase, vol. 1, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1980, pp. 15-41. A comprehensive, two-volume treatise with many key references.

67. J.L. Oxenford and B.W. Lykins, Jr., J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 83(1), 58-64 (1991).

68. I.N. Najm and co-workers, J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 83(1), 65-76 (1991).

69. L.W. Canter and R.C. Knox, Ground Water Pollution Control, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Mich., 1985, pp. 89-125.

70. Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc., Removal of Volatile Organic Chemicals from Potable Water—Technologies and Costs, Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1986, pp. 23-40.

71. G. Culp, G. Wesner, R. Williams, and M.V. Hughes, Wastewater Reuse and Recycling Technology, Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1980, pp. 343-432. A useful review of wastewater treatment with activated carbon.

72. M. Smisek and S. Cerny, Active Carbon—Manufacture, Properties, and Applications, Elsevier Publishing, New York, 1970, pp. 290-294.

73. A.J. Bird, in A.B. Stiles ed., Catalyst Supports and Supported Catalysts, Butterworths, Stoneham, Mass., 1987, pp. 107-137.

74. pp. 731.2000W, 731.2001M-731.2001P.

75. P.J. Luft and P.C. Speers, Paper 52c, AIChE Summer National Mtg., Aug. 19-22, 1990.

76. P.J. Clarke and co-workers, SAE Trans. 76, 824-837 (1967).

77. Product literature on hydrocarbon vapor recovery systems, John Zink Co., Tulsa, Okla., 1990.

79. H.R. Johnson and R.S. Williams, S.A.E. Technical Paper No. 902119, International Fuels and Lubricants Exposition, Tulsa, Okla., Oct. 23, 1990.

80. D.W. Moeller and D.W. Underhill, Nucl. Saf. 22, 599-611 (1981).

81. M.L. Hyder, Comm. Eur. Communities [Rep.] EUR 1986, EUR 10580, Gaseous Effluent Treat. Nucl. Install., pp. 451462 (1986).

82. F.J. Ball, S.L. Torrence, and A.J. Repik, APCA J. 22, 20-26 (1972).

84. J. Klein and K.-D. Henning, Fuel63, 1064-1067 (1984).

86. M.A. Brisk and A. Turk, Proc. APCA Ann. Meetg., 77th 2, 8493 (1984).

87. U.S. Pat. 2,920,050 (Jan. 5, 1960), R.J. Grabenstetter and F.E. Blacet (to U.S. Dept. of Army).

88. U.S. Pat. 4,801,311 (Jan. 31, 1989), E.-D. Tolles (toWestvaco Corp.).

89. U.S. Pat. 3,460,543 (Aug. 12, 1969), C.H. Kieth, V. Norman, and W.W. Bates, Jr. (to Ligget & Meyers Corp.).

90. R.K. Sinah and P.L. Walker, Carbon 10, 754-756 (1972).

91. W.D. Lovett and R.L. Poltorak, Water and Sewage Works 121, 74-75 (1974).

92. G.N. Brown, M.A. Lunn, C.E. Miller, and C.D. Shelor, Tappi J. 66, 33-36 (1983).

93. S. Dunlop and R. Banks, Hydrocarbon Process. 56, 147-152 (1977).

94. G.F. Russell, Petrol. Refiner. 40, 103-106 (1961).

96. E. Richter, Erdol Kohle, Erdgas, Petrochem. 40, 432-438 (1987).

98. Gastak Solvent Recovery System, product literature, Kureha Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., New York, 1990.

99. H. Briggs and W. Cooper, Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 41, 119127 (1920-1921).

100. J. Braslaw, J. Nasea, and A. Golovoy, Alternative Energy Sources: Proceedings of the Miami Int. Conf. on Alternative Energy Sources, 4th ed., Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Mich., pp. 261-270, 1980.

101. U.S. Pat. 4,817,684 (Apr. 4, 1989), J.W. Turko andK.S. Czer-winski (to Michigan Consolidated Gas Co.).

102. U.S.Pat. 4,102,987 (July 25, 1978), D.M. Cook and D.C. Gus-tafson (to The Dow Chemical Company).

104. H. Jüntgen, Erdol Kohle, Erdgas, Petrochem. 39(12), 546551 (1986).

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