Contributors

Nicholas R. Abu-Absi, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, Cell Cycle, Eukaryotes

Luis A. Actis, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, Plasmid DNA Replication Michael W.W. Adams, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Enzymes,

Extremely Thermostable P.S. Adams, Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities William R. Adams, Merck Manufacturing Division, West Point, Pennsylvania, Adsorption, Protein, Batch Eduardo Agosin, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago,

Chile, Solid Substrate Fermentation, Automation Eric Ailor, Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland, Insect Cells and Larvae, Gene Expression Systems Kazuo Aisaka, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, Cholesterol Oxidase

Hiroyuki Akatsuka, Tanabe Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan, Diltiazem Synthesis

Mohamed Al-Rubeai, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England,

Apoptosis; Cell Cycle Seigo Amachi, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, Pyruvate, Production Using Defective ATPase Activity Teruo Amachi, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, ß-Galactosidase, Enzy-

mology and Applications Graham Andrews, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, Bioreactors, Gas Treatment Ruth Hogue Angeletti, Albert Einstein College ofMedicine, Bronx, New York, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities

William Apel, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, Bioreactors, Gas Treatment Frances H. Arnold, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, Enzymes, Directed Evolution David L. Aronson, Consultant, Bethesda, Maryland, Coagulation Factors, Therapeutic

Yasuhisa Asano, Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama, Japan, D-Aminopeptidase, Alkaline D-Peptidase; Opine Dehydrogenase, Secondary Amine Dicarboxylic Acids; Phenylalanine Dehydrogenase; Mitsubishi Chemical Co., Yokohama, Japan, Malate, D-Malate Yoshiro Ashina, Nitto Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, Nitrile Hydratase

John Aunins, Merck and Company, West Point, Pennsylvania, Roller Bottle Culture, Mixing Hans Axelsson, Alfa Laval Separation AB, Tumba, Sweden, Cell Separation, Centrifugation Irina Bagyan, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, Gene Transfer, Gram-Positive Bacteria Frederick S. Baker, Westvaco Corporation, Charleston, South Carolina,

Activated Carbon, Decoloration of Pharmaceutical Products Kym N. Baker, University of Kent, Canterbury, U.K., Glycosylation of Recombinant Proteins Richard H. Baltz, CognoGen Enterprises, Indianapolis, Indiana, Muta-genesis

A. Baradarajan, Indian Institute of Technology-Madras, Chennai, India,

Dextran, Microbial Production Methods Ana Paulina Barba de la Rosa, University of California, Irvine, Irvine,

California, Crystallization, Bulk, Macromolecules Claudia Bardouille, ECACC CAMR Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire,

United Kingdom, Animal Cells Used in Manufacturing Ann-Kristin Barnfield Frej, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala,

Sweden, Adsorption, Expanded Bed Jonathan Basch, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Syracuse, New York, Cephalosporins

J.W. Bennett, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, Aspergillus I.S. Bentley, ABM Brewing and Enzymes Group/Rhone-Poulenc, Stockport, United Kingdom, Enzymes, Starch Conversion

A.R. Bernard, Serono Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Geneva, Switzerland, Transient Expression Systems Michael J. Betenbaugh, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland,

Insect Cells and Larvae, Gene Expression Systems Kami Beyzavi, Bioprocessing Limited, Consett, County Durham, United

Kingdom, Adsorbents, Inorganic John R. Birch, Lonza Biologics PLC, Berkshire, United Kingdom, Suspension Culture of Animal Cells H.D. Blasey, Serono Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Geneva, Switzerland, Transient Expression Systems Thomas Bley, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany, Flow Cytometry

Lynda F. Bonewald, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities

C.J.-P. Boonaert, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve,

Belgium, Cell Separation, Flocculation Michelle K. Bothwell, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, Adsorption, Proteins with Synthetic Materials Joye Bramble, Merck and Company, West Point, Pennsylvania, Roller Bottle Culture, Mixing R. Bruttini, Criofarma Freeze-drying Equipment, Turin, Italy, Freeze-

drying, Pharmaceuticals James D. Bryers, University of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut,

Biofilms, Microbial R. Buccholz, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany, Microen-capsulation

Michael Butler, University ofManitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, Energy Metabolism, Microbial and Animal Cells Eleanor Canova-Davis, Genentech, San Francisco, California, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Ningjun Cao, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, Hemicellulose

Conversion; Organic Compounds, Cellulose Conversion Christine L. Case, Skyline College, San Bruno, California, Professional

Societies, Society for Industrial Microbiology (SIM) S.A. Casnocha, Monsanto Co., St. Louis, Missouri, Media, Animal Cell Culture

Francisco J. Castillo, Berlex Biosciences, Richmond, California, Hybridoma, Antibody Production Marvin Charles, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Fermenter Design

Peter S. J. Cheetham, Zylepsis, Ltd., Ashford, United Kingdom, Enzymes, for Flavor Production Shu-Jen D. Chiang, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Syracuse, New York, Cephalosporins

Yusuf Chisti, University of Almeria, Almeria, Spain, Mass Transfer; Shear Sensitivity; Solid Substrate Fermentations, Enzyme Production, Food Enrichment

Jeffrey L. Cleland, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California, Formulation and Delivery, Protein Pharmaceuticals O. Colagrande, Universita Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy, Wine Production

Attilio Converti, Genoa University, Genoa, Italy, Biofilters

Charles L. Cooney, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,

Massachusetts, Bioreactors, Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactors Athel Cornish-Bowden, National Center for Scientific Research, Marseilles, France, Kinetics, Enzymes Rosalie J. Cote, Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems, Sparks, Maryland, Media Composition, Microbial, Laboratory Scale; Medium Formulation and Design, E. coli and Bacillus spp. John W. Crabb, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Steven M. Cramer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, Chro-

matography, Ion Exchange Ronald L. Crawford, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, Bioremediation vii

Jorge H. Crosa, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon,

Plasmid DNA Replication John Cullum, LB Genetik, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern,

Germany, Genetic Instability Simon Cutting, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey,

United Kingdom, Gene Transfer, Gram-Positive Bacteria Hans von Dohren, Technical University Berlin, Berlin, Germany, Peptide Alessandro D'Aprano, University of Rome, La Sapienza, Rome, Italy, Conductivity

W.-D. Deckwer, GBF-Gesellschaft fUr Biotechnologische Forschung GmbH,

Braunschweig, Germany, Xanthan Gum Michael L. Dekleva, Merck and Co., Inc., West Point, Pennsylvania, Vaccine Technology

Arnold L. Demain, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,

Massachusetts, Metabolites, Primary and Secondary P.B. Dengis, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, Cell Separation, Flocculation

C.P. Dillon, C.P. Dillon & Associates, St. Albans, West Virginia, Stainless Steels

Dennis Dobie, Fluor Daniel, Marlton, New Jersey, Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

D. Dochain, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium, Process Control, Strategy and Optimization

Ed Domanico, Tri-Clover, Valencia, California, Pumps, Industrial John Dougherty, Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indiana, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Alan Doyle, Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Salisbury,

Wilts, United Kingdom, Culture Collections Y.F. Dufrene, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, Cell Separation, Flocculation C.C. Dupont-Gillain, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-

Neuve, Belgium, Cell Separation, Flocculation H. Dziallas, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, Scale-Up, Stirred-Tank Reactors Heinrich Ebner, Linz, Austria, Vinegar, Acetic Acid Production G. Larry Eitel, Jacobs Engineering Group, Denver, Colorado, ASTM Standards for Biotechnology Lynda B.M. Ellis, University ofMinnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Bio-

catalysis Databases Takakazu Endo, Nitto Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, Nitrile Hydratase

Larry E. Erickson, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, Anaerobes

Bruno Fabiano, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy, Corrosion, Microbial Pierre Fauquenberque, Gist-brocades, Seclin Cedex, France, Enzymes,

Fruit Juice Processing Joseph Fernandez, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities J.-L. Flores Candia, GBF-Gesellschaft fur Biotechnologische Forschung

GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany, Xanthan Gum Ian G. Fotheringham, NSC Technologies, Mount Prospect, Illinois, Phe-nylalanine

Beth Fowler, Autoimmune, Inc., Lexington, Massachusetts, Professional

Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Cornelius G. Friedrich, University ofDortmund, Dortmund, Germany,

Waste Gas Cleaning, Biological Roger Fuentes-Granados, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, Soybean

(Fermentation, Meal Oil) Daniel Y.C. Fung, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, Anaerobes

Sean R. Gallagher, Motorola Phoenix Corporate Research Laboratories,

Tempe, Arizona, Electrophoresis of Proteins and Nucleic Acids Subinay Ganguly, Smith Kline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, Expression Systems, Mammalian Cells F.A.P. Garcia, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal, Cell Disruption and Lysis

Alan R. Gardner, Smith Kline Beecham, King ofPrussia, Pennsylvania, Process Validation

Maria Gavrilescu, Research Centre for Antibiotics, Iasi, Romania, Static Mixing, in Fermentation Process

Craig J.L. Gershater, S. B. Pharmaceuticals, Harlow, Essex, England,

Inoculum Preparation Robert L. Gherna, American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, Maryland, Culture Preservation, Bacteria, Fungi, Yeast, and Cell Lines; Medium Formulation and Design, E. coli and Bacillus spp. Siddartha Ghose, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom, Protein Adsorption, Expanded Bed Barbara Ghrist, Genentech, San Francisco, California, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities M. Gluz, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel, Bioreac-

tors, Airlift Reactors Francesc Godia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain,

Bioreactors, Fluidized-Bed Victor Goetz, Merck Research Labs, West Point, Pennsylvania, Adsorption, Protein, Batch

C.S. Gong, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, Hemicellulose Conversion; Organic Compounds, Cellulose Conversion

Catherine Grassin, Gist-brocades, Seclin Cedex, France, Enzymes, Fruit Juice Processing

Thomas P. Graycar, Genencor International Inc., Palo Alto, California,

Proteolytic Cleavage, Reaction Mechanisms Lasse Greiner, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany, Enzymes, Immobilized, Reactors J. Bryan Griffiths, Scientific Consultancy & Publishing, Salisbury, United

Kingdom, Mammalian Cell Culture Reactors, Scale-Up E. Molina Grima, University of Almería, Almería, Spain, Microalgae, Mass Culture Methods

Tingyue Gu, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, Chromatography, Radial Flow Maria J. Guardia, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota,

Mammalian Cell Bioreactors S. Guillouet, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Corynebacteria, Brevibacteria H. Hakanson, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Sampling Methods (Reactors, Contamination) Daniel D. Hanle, Kendro Laboratory Products, Newtown, Connecticut,

Centrifuges, Animal Cells Satoshi Hanzawa, TOSOH Corp., Ayase-shi, Japan, Aspartame; Tokyo

Research Laboratory, Hayakawa, Japan, Thermolysin Colin R. Harwood, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon

Tyne, United Kingdom, Bacillus Junzo Hasegawa, Kaneka Corporation, Hyogo, Japan, Optically Active

1,2-Diols, Microbial Production by Stereoinversion Gary Hathaway, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California,

Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Holly Haughney, Pall Corporation, Long Island, New York, Filtration, Air;

Filtration, Cartridge J.J. Heijnen, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, Bio-

energetics of Microbial Growth Martin Held, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland,

Pseudomonas, Process Applications Ulf Hellman, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala, Sweden, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities

D.C. Hempel, Universität Gesamthochschule Paderborn, Paderborn, Germany, Scale-Up, Stirred-Tank Reactors

Diane L. Hevehan, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, Hypoxia,

Effects on Animal Cells S.M. Heydarian, University College London, London, United Kingdom,

Rheology of Filamentous Microorganisms, Submerged Culture Paula M. Hicks, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, Enzymes, Extremely Thermostable; Thermophilic Microorganisms Sophia Hober, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, Affinity

Fusions, Gene Expression Ann C. Horan, Schering Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey, Secondary Metabolite Production, Actinomycetes, Other Than Strep-tomyces

Daslav Hranueli, PLIVA d.d., Research Institute, Zagreb, Croatia, Genetic Instability

Tsu-An Hsu, Vaccine Pharmaceutical R&D, Merck & Co., Inc., West Point,

Pennsylvania, Insect Cells and Larvae, Gene Expression Systems Wei-Shou Hu, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mammalian Cell Bioreactors; Microcarrier Culture

Holger Huebner, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany, Microencapsulation

Tony Hunt, Advanced Minerals Corporation, Santa Barbara, California, Filter Aids

Takamitsu Iida, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan, Wastewater Treatment, Immobilized Cells Yasuhiro Ikenaka, Kaneka Corporation, Hyogo, Japan, Aminohydrolases, for Production of D-Amino Acids Masayuki Inui, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Ibaraki, Japan, L-Isoleucine

A.P. Ison, University College London, London, United Kingdom, Rheology of Filamentous Microorganisms, Submerged Culture Kathryn M. Ivanetich, University of California-San Francisco, SanFran-cisco, California, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities

Cornelius F. Ivory, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington,

Electrophoresis, Proteins, Batch and Continuous Mahendra K. Jain, MBI International, Lansing, Michigan, Anaerobes, Industrial Uses

David C. James, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom, Gly-

cosylation of Recombinant Proteins Nigel Jenkins, Eli Lilly Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, Protein Glycosylation Steen Weber Jensen, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Insulin, Purification

Michael R. Johns, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Crystallization, Proteins, Kinetics Alois Jungbauer, Institute of Applied Microbiology Vienna, Austria, Chro-

matography, Computer-Aided Design Beth H. Junker, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Good Industrial Large Scale Practice (GLSP); Pilot Plants, Design and Operation Oliver Kaltenbrunner, Institute of Applied Microbiology, Vienna, Austria,

Chromatography, Computer-Aided Design Manohar Kalyanpur, Consultant, Bioseparations and Pharmaceutical

Validation, Plaisir, France, Membrane Separations Per Karsnas, Percreative, Göteborg, Sweden, Chromatography, Hydropho-bic Interaction

R.S. Karthikeyan, Indian Institute of Technology-Madras, Chennai, India, Dextran, Microbial Production Methods Michihiko Kataoka, Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan, Aldehyde Reductase;

Lactonohydrolase; Pantothenic Acid and Related Compounds Yasuo Kato, Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama, Japan, Opine De-

hydrogenase, Secondary Amine Dicarboxylic Acids Randal J. Kaufman, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor,

Michigan, Secretion from Animal Cells Tetsuya Kawakita, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kanazawa, Japan, Amino Acids, Glutamate

Takuo Kawamoto, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Cell Immobilization;

Organosilicon Compounds Robert M. Kelly, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, Enzymes, Extremely Thermostable; Thermophilic Microorganisms Birgit Kessler, Institute of Biotechnology, Zürich, Switzerland,

Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates) Shun-ichi Kidokoro, Sagami Chemical Research Center, Kanagawa, Japan, Thermolysin

Shukuo Kinoshita, Kyowa HakkoKogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, Glutamic

Acid Producing Microorganisms; Production of L-Glutamic Acid Horst Kleinkauf, Technical University Berlin, Berlin, Germany, Peptide M.A. Klich, U.S. Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, Louisiana, As-pergillus

Miki Kobayashi, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Ibaraki, Japan, L-Aspartic Acid

Arthur L. Koch, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, Microbial

Growth Measurement, Methods Fragiskos N. Kolisis, National Technical University of Athens, Athens,

Greece, Reverse Micelles, Enzymes Hidenobu Komeda, Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama, Japan, D-

Aminopeptidase, Alkaline D-Peptidase Tadashi Kometani, Toyama College of Technology, Toyama-shi, Japan, Bioreduction; Yeast, Baker's

Udo Kragl, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany, Biotransformation, Engineering Aspects; Enzymes, Immobilized, Reactors M.R.V. Krishnan, Anna University, Chennai, India, Citric Acid, Processes Maria-Regina Kula, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Jülich, Germany, Protein Purification, Aqueous Liquid Extraction Hidehiko Kumagai, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Dihydroxyphen-

ylalanine (4), Produced by Microorganisms; Tyrosine Phenol-lyase Hidetoshi Kutsuki, Kaneka Corporation, Hyogo, Japan, Optically Active

1,2-Diols, Microbial Production by Stereoinversion Andreas Lübbert, Martin Luther University, Wittenberg, Germany, Gas Hold-Up

David C. LaPorte, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Gly-

oxylate Bypass, Regulation Xanthe M. Lam, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California, Formulation and Delivery, Protein Pharmaceuticals Per Larsen, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Insulin, Purification

Michael E. Laska, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,

Massachusetts, Bioreactors, Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactors Anh LeDuy, Laval University, Sainte-Foy, Canada, Pullulan, Microbial

Production Methods David Leak, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Methylotrophs, Industrial Applications Ann L. Lee, Merck Research Labs, West Point, Pennsylvania, Adsorption, Protein, Batch

Gyun Min Lee, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Tae-

jon, Korea, Osmotic Stress, Secretion Rate P.A. Lessard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Corynebacteria, Brevibacteria Andreas Liese, Forschungszentrum Juülich, Juülich, Germany, Biotransformations, Engineering Aspects Carsten Lindemann, University ofHannover, Hannover, Germany, Fluorescence Techniques for Bioprocess Monitoring M. Liu, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, Roller Bottle Culture, Mixing

David R. Lloyd, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England, Cell Cycle

Deryk T. Loo, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute,

Seattle, Washington, Attachment Factors Shun-ichi Maemoto, Kaneka Corporation, Hyogo, Japan, Optically Active

1,2-Diols, Microbial Production by Stereoinversion Savvas C. Makrides, PRAECIS Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, Expression Systems, E. coli Stefan Marose, University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany, Fluorescence

Techniques for Bioprocess Monitoring R.E. Marquis, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, Transport, Mi-

crobial Solute Uptake Seiji Masuda, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Erythropoietin Jennie P. Mather, Rauen Biotechnologies, Inc., Mountain View, California, Culture Media, Animal Cells, Large Scale Production Hiroaki Matsumae, Tanabe Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan, Diltiazem Synthesis

Ryuichi Matsumo, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Glucosidases Tadashi Matsunaga, Tokyo University ofAgriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Algal Culture Ryuichi Matsuno, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Yeast, Baker's B. Mattiasson, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Sampling Methods (Reactors, Contamination) Ian R. McDonald, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom, Methanotrophs

Joseph McGuire, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, Adsorption,

Proteins with Synthetic Materials Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, Crystallization, Bulk, Macromolecules J.C. Merchuk, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel, Bio-

reactors, Air-lift Reactors Charles E. Miller, Westvaco Corporation, Charleston, South Carolina, Activated Carbon, Decoloration of Pharmaceutical Products Stephen P. Miller, University ofMinnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Gly-oxylate Bypass, Regulation

William M. Miller, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, Hypoxia,

Effects on Animal Cells Sheenah Mische, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, Professional

Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities David A. Mitchell, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil,

Solid-State Fermentation, Microbial Growth Kinetics Inger Mollerup, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Insulin, Purification

Alison Moore, Amgen, Inc., Newbury Park, California, Culture Media,

Animal Cells, Large Scale Production Vadim V. Mozhaev, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Denaturation,

Proteins, Solvent Mediated Susann Müller, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, Flow Cytometry David W. Murhammer, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Pluronic Poly-

ols, Cell Protection J. Colin Murrell, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom, Meth-anotrophs

F.J. Muzzio, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, Roller Bottle Culture, Mixing

Clayton Naeve, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities

Kazuhiro Nakanishi, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan, Membrane

Surface Liquid Culture, Microorganisms, Fungi Toru Nakayama, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, ß-Galactosidase, En-

zymology and Applications M.P. Nandakumar, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Sampling Methods

(Reactors, Contamination) Venkatesh Natarajan, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York,

Chromatography, Ion Exchange Robert Newburgh, TheProtein Society, Bethesda, Maryland, Professional

Societies, The Protein Society Ronald L. Niece, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Hans Ole Nielsen, DELTA Light&Optics, Lyngby, Denmark, Fluorescence

Techniques for Bioprocess Monitoring Jens Nielsen, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, Fermentation Monitoring, Design and Optimization Zivko L. Nikolov, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, Soybean (Fermentation, Meal Oil)

Joakim Nilsson, Royal Institute ofTechnology, Stockholm, Sweden, Affinity Fusions, Gene Expression Yasuo Ninomiya, Nitto Denko Company, Osaka, Japan, Insecticides, Mi-

crobial Production; Optical Resolution, Biocatalysis Takuo Nishida, Tanabe Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan, Diltiazem Synthesis, Microbial Asymmetric Reduction P.T. Noble, Fluor Daniel GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany, Sterilization-in-Place

Per-Ake Nygren, Royallhstitute ofTechnology, Stockholm, Sweden, Affinity Fusions, Gene Expression Jun Ogawa, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Oils, Microbial Production Masahiro Ogura, Kaneka Corporation, Hyogo, Japan, Optically Active

1,2-Diols, Microbial Production by Stereoinversion Takehisa Ohashi, Kaneka Corporation, Hyogo, Japan, Optically Active

1,2-Diols, Microbial Production by Stereoinversion Hiromichi Ohta, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan, Lactones, Biocata-lytic Synthesis

Tetsuo Oka, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo, Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, Amino Acids,

Production Processes Hans Sejr Olsen, Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Enzymes, Protein Hydrolysis

Gustaf Olsson, Lund Institute ofTechnology, Lund, Sweden, Waste Treatment, Activated Sludge, Control Strategies Tetsuo Omata, Nitto Denko Company, Osaka, Japan, Insecticides, Micro-

bial Production; Optical Resolution, Biocatalysis Sadettin S. Ozturk, Bayer Corporation, Berkeley, California, Ammonia

Toxicity, Animal Cells J. Ricardo Ptérez-Correa, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, Solid Substrate Fermentation, Automation Philip Packer, Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Salisbury, Wilts, United Kingdom, Culture Collections

Nicolai S. Panikov, Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation, Kinetics, Microbial Growth Patrizia Perego, University ofGenoa, Genoa, Italy, Corrosion, Microbial Madhusudan V. Peshwa, Dendreon Corp., Mountain View, California, Microcarrier Culture

Joerg Peters, BayerAG, Wuppertal, Germany, Cofactor Regeneration, Nic-

otinamide Coenzymes David Pollard, Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, NewJersey, Vent Gas Analysis

Kaisa Poutanen, VTTBiotechnologyandFood Research, Espoo, Finland, Hemicellulases

Joan Qi Si, NovoNordiskFermentLtd., Dittingen, Switzerland, Enzymes,

Baking, Bread Making Bruce Ramsay, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Polyhydroxyalkanoates, Separation, Purification, and Manufacturing Methods

Juliana Ramsay, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Poly-hydroxyalkanoates, Separation, Purification, and Manufacturing Methods

Douglas W. Rea, Cytogen Corp., Princeton, New Jersey, Antibody Purification

Kenneth F. Reardon, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado,

Fluorescence Techniques for Bioprocess Monitoring Matthias Redenbach, LB Genetik, University ofKaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany, Genetic Instability Hans Reichenbach, GesellschaftfürBiotechnologischeForschung, Braunschweig, Germany, Myxobacteria Harold Reisman, Biotechnology Results, Weston, Connecticut, Economics Albert J. Repik, Westvaco Corporation, Charleston, South Carolina, Activated Carbon, Decoloration of Pharmaceutical Products Nadine Ritter, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Palmer Rogers, University ofMinnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Clos-

tridia, Solvent Formation Rodica-Viorica Roman, Chemical Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Iasi, Romania, Transfer Phenomena in Multiphase Systems in Mixing Vessels

Charles M. Roth, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Burns Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, Chromatog-raphy, Size Exclusion P.G. Rouxhet, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, Cell Separation, Flocculation Joon Soo Ryu, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Tae-

jon, Korea, Osmotic Stress, Secretion Rate Peter Salmon, Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, New Jersey, Vent Gas Analysis

Gautam Sanyal, Astra Research Center Boston, Cambridge,

Massachusetts, Thermal Unfolding, Proteins Ryuzo Sasaki, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Erythropoietin Tadashi Sato, Tanabe Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan, Enzymes, Immobilization Methods; Malic Acid, Production by Fumarase; Production of L-Amino Acids by Aminoacylase Catherine H. Schein, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston,

Texas, Protein Aggregation, Denaturation; Protein Expression, Soluble Thomas Scheper, University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany, Fluorescence Techniques for Bioprocess Monitoring S. Schiewer, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, Biosorption, Metals Andrew Schmid, Swiss Federal Institute ofTechnology, Zurich, Switzerland, Pseudomonas, Process Applications Ole Schou, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Insulin, Purification Robert Schwartz, Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois, Professional Societies, Society for Industrial Microbiology (SIM) Henry Schwartzberg, University ofMassachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, Food Process Engineering James Searles, Merck and Company, West Point, Pennsylvania, Roller

Bottle Culture, Mixing Katsuya Seguro, Food Research and Development Lab, Kawaski, Japan, Transglutaminase

Klaus Selber, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Jülich, Germany, Protein Purification, Aqueous Liquid Extraction

Sylvia Sellmer-Wilsberg, Bad Honnef, Germany, Vinegar, Acetic Acid Production

Shuji Senda, Nitto Denko Company, Osaka, Japan, Insecticides, Microbial

Production; Optical Resolution, Biocatalysis Pir M. Shah, De Mont fort University Leicester, United Kingdom, Protein Glycosylation

P. Ayazi Shamlou, University College London, London, United Kingdom,

Rheology of Filamentous Microorganisms, Submerged Culture Bhav P. Sharma, CV Therapeutics, Palo Alto, California, Cell Separation, Sedimentation

Allan R. Shatzman, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King ofPrus-

sia, Pennsylvania, Expression Systems, Mammalian Cells Li Shi, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania, Thermal

Unfolding, Proteins Takeji Shibatani, Tanabe Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan, Diltiazem Synthesis; Diltiazem Synthesis, Microbial Asymmetric Reduction Sakayu Shimizu, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Aldehyde Reductase; Lactonohydrolase; Oils, Microbial Production; Pantothenic Acid and Related Compounds Suteaki Shioya, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan, Mixed Culture M. S. Showell, Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio, Enzymes, Detergent Rabinder P. Singh, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England, Apoptosis

Satinder K. Singh, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Gly-

oxylate Bypass, Regulation A.J. Sinskey, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Corynebacteria, Brevibacteria Augustine Smith, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, Professional

Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Thomas M. Smith, Smith Kline Beecham, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania,

Process Validation Leo Snel, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Insulin, Purification Gail Sofer, BioReliance, Rockville, Maryland, Cleaning, Cleaning Validation

Carles Sola, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Bio-

reactors, Fluidized-Bed Richard Sparling, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, Energy

Metabolism, Microbial and Animal Cells Dave Speicher, Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Professional

Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Koti Sreekrishna, Procter and Gamble Co., Ross, Ohio, Pichia, Optimization of Protein Expression Friedrich Srienc, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, Cell Cycle, Eukaryotes

Stefan Stähl, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, Affinity

Fusions, Gene Expression Keith Stephenson, University ofNewcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon

Tyne, United Kingdom, Bacillus Kathryn Stone, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Bob Stover, Tri-Clover, Valencia, California, Pumps, Industrial William R. Strohl, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey,

Secondary Metabolites, Antibiotics Daniel J. Strydom, Bio Nebraska, Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska, Professional

Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Deidre M. Stuart, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, Solid-State Fermentation, Microbial Growth Kinetics John Stults, Genentech, San Francisco, California, Professional Societies,

Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Takeshi Sugai, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan, Lactones, Biocatalytic Synthesis

Masaru Suto, Nitto Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, Nitrile Hydratase

T. Swaminathan, Indian Institute of Technology-Madras, Chennai, India,

Dextran, Microbial Production Methods P.D. Swanson, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, Roller Bottle Culture, Mixing

Kristine M. Swiderek, ZymoGenetics, Seattle, Washington, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities

Satomi Takahashi, Kaneka Corporation, Hyogo, Japan, Aminohydrolases, for Production of D-Amino Acids; Phenylglycines, D-Phenylglycines

Hiroyuki Takano, Chichibu Onoda Cement Corporation, Chiba-

prefecture, Japan, Algal Culture Haruko Takeyama, Tokyo University ofAgriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Algal Culture Atsuo Tanaka, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Cell Immobilization Robert D. Tanner, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, SolidState Fermentation, Microbial Growth Kinetics Maija Tenkanen, VTTBiotechnology and Food Research, Espoo, Finland, Hemicellulases

Masato Terasawa, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Ibaraki, Japan, L-

Aspartic Acid; L-Isoleucine Jorg Thommes, Heinrich-Heine Universitat Düsseldorf, Jülich, Germany,

Membrane Chromatography Jules Thibault, Laval University, Sainte-Foy, Canada, Pullulan, Microbial

Production Methods J.S. Tolan, logen Corporation, Ottawa, Canada, Enzymes, Pulp and Paper Processing

E. Donald Tolles, Westvaco Corporation, Charleston, South Carolina, Activated Carbon, Decoloration of Pharmaceutical Products Marcelo E. Tolmasky, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton,

California, Plasmid DNA Replication Fusao Tomita, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, Pyruvate, Production Using Defective ATPase Activity Tetsuya Tosa, Tanabe Seiyaku Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan, Enzymes, Immobilization Methods; Malic Acid, Production by Fumarase; Production of L-Amino Acids by Aminoacylase R. Reid Townsend, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities

Mario R. Tredici, University of Florence, Florence, Italy, Bioreactors, Photo

G.T. Tsao, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, Hemicellulose Conversion; Organic Compounds, Cellulose Conversion Satoru Tsuda, Kaneka Corporation, Hyogo, Japan, Optically Active 1,2-

Diols, Microbial Production by Stereoinversion Radu Z. Tudose, Technical University Gh.Asachi lasi, lasi, Romania, Static Mixing, in Fermentation Process

A.P.F. Turner, Cranfield Biotechnology Centre, Bedfordshire, UnitedKingdom, Process Monitoring

Makoto Ueda, Mitsubishi Chemical Co., Yokohama, Japan, Malate, D-Malate

Mathias Uhlen, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, Affinity

Fusions, Gene Expression Michiel E. Ultee, Cytogen Corp., Princeton, New Jersey, Antibody Purification

D.R. Unger, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, Roller Bottle Culture, Mixing

Mahesh Uttamlal, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland, Optical Sensors

Robert van Reis, Genentech, lnc., South San Francisco, California, Protein Ultrafiltration James Vaughn, ARS, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland, Insect Cell Culture,

Protein Expression Liisa Viikari, VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo, Finland, Hemicellulases

B. Volesky, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, Biosorption, Metals David B. Volkin, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania,

Thermal Unfolding, Proteins Lawrence P. Wackett, University ofMinnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota,

Biocatalysis Databases David R. Walt, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, Optical Sensors Christian Wandrey, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany,

Enzymes, Immobilized, Reactors Sally Warburton, ECACC, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, Human and Primate Cell Lines

Udo Werner, University of Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany, Waste Gas Cleaning, Biological

David White, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, Electron Transport

S.F. White, CranfieldBiotechnology Centre, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom,

Process Monitoring Erik M. Whiteley, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, Insect

Cells and Larvae, Gene Expression Systems Ken Williams, Yale University New Haven, Connecticut, Professional Societies, Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities L.B. Willis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Corynebacteria, Brevibacteria Jack Wilson, ABEC, Inc., Allentown, Pennsylvania, Fermenter Design Patrick L. Wintrode, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, Enzymes, Directed Evolution Bernard Witholt, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland, Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates); Pseudomonas, Process Applications K.D. Wittrup, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, Protein Secretion, Saccharomyces cerevisiae R.A. Wolfe, Monsanto Co., St. Louis, Missouri, Media, Animal Cell Culture Kathy Wong, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Microcarrier Culture

Marcel Wubbolts, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland, Pseudomonas, Process Applications

Florian M. Wurm, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland, Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells, Recombinant Protein Production Xinfa Xiao, Apotex Fermentation, Inc., Winnipeg, Canada, Energy Metabolism, Microbial and Animal Cells Feng Xu, Novo Nordisk Biotech, Davis, California, Laccase Hideaki Yamada, Mitsubishi Chemical Co., Yokohama, Japan, Malate, D-Malate

Tsuneo Yamane, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, Monoacylglycerols Martin L. Yarmush, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Burns Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, Chro-matography, Size Exclusion Atsushi Yokota, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, Pyruvate, Production Using Defective ATPase Activity Hideaki Yukawa, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Ibaraki, Japan, L-

Aspartic Acid; L-Isoleucine Dane W. Zabriskie, Smith Kline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King ofPrus-

sia, Pennsylvania, Process Validation J. Gregory Zeikus, MBIInternational, Lansing, Michigan, Anaerobes, Industrial Uses

Mario Zilli, Genoa University, Genoa, Italy, Biofilters Marko Zlokarnik, Graz, Austria, Dimensional Analysis, Scale-Up Andrew L. Zydney, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, Protein Ultrafiltration

Your Metabolism - What You Need To Know

Your Metabolism - What You Need To Know

If you have heard about metabolism, chances are it is in relation to weight loss. Metabolism is bigger than weight loss, though, as you will learn later on. It is about a healthier, better you. If you want to fire up your metabolism and do not have any idea how to do it, you have come to the right place. If you have tried to speed up your metabolism before but do not see visible results, you have also come to the right place.

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