Among the different types of biofilters described in the literature for a variety of applications (16), open biofilters, consisting of single beds of compost or porous soils, commonly 1-m deep, are used mainly for odor and VOC abatement. Because they are in direct contact with the open air, their performance is strongly influenced by weather conditions (rain, frost, temperature fluctuations, etc.). The simple design and low cost of these systems are counterbalanced by difficult monitoring and control, as well as by large space requirements.
All the other real-scale configurations are closed biofilters containing mixtures of organic materials and bulking
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