G

Effluent stream !

Breakthrough curve

Volume treated

Figure 4. Adsorption and breakthrough curve for fixed bed of granular or shaped activated carbon.

tion zone is contained within a single column by passing liquid upward while continuously or intermittently withdrawing spent carbon at the bottom and adding fresh carbon at the top.

The total activated carbon consumption for liquid-phase applications in the United States in 1987 was estimated to be about 76,700 t, which accounted for nearly 80% of the total activated carbon use. The consumption by application is summarized in Table 5 (36pp.731.2000V-731.2001L)

Potable Water Treatment

Treatment of drinking water accounts for about 24% of the total activated carbon used in liquid-phase applications (36pp.731.2000V-731.2001L). Rivers, lakes, and ground-water from wells, the most common drinking water sources, are often contaminated with bacteria, viruses, natural vegetation decay products, halogenated materials,

Table 5. Liquid-Phase Activated Carbon Consumption (103 t) in the United States in 1987.

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