Generation of Ammonia Caused by Cell Metabolism

Although ammonia can be produced from other amino acids, glutamine metabolism is established to be the most important pathway. The pathways involving ammonia are summarized in Figure 1 and have been studied extensively in the literature (9,26-46).

Glutamine metabolism primarily takes place in mitochondria. Glutamine is initially deaminated by glutaminase, with ammonia as a byproduct (47,48). Ammonia can also be removed from glutamine via biosynthetic pathways, where the ammonia group is used in the formation of a biosynthetic product, particularly for pyrimidine and purine base synthesis (Fig. 1). The product formed by ei-

Lactate

Biosynthesis

Glycolysis 1

- Pyruvate

Alanine

Glutamine li

S ti

Glutaminase

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