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20 40

Culturing time (h)

Figure 10. Typical fermentation profile (l-lysine): C. glutamicum (Homoser~, LeuL, AECr), 120-kL fermenter, fed-batch culture, molasses medium. OD, indicated cell concentration; R-S, residual sugar.

20 40

Culturing time (h)

Figure 10. Typical fermentation profile (l-lysine): C. glutamicum (Homoser~, LeuL, AECr), 120-kL fermenter, fed-batch culture, molasses medium. OD, indicated cell concentration; R-S, residual sugar.

charged out of the system. Therefore, it is clear that the properties of the fermentation broth strongly affect the total yield of MSG. How the mother liquor of the GA process is used is also important. Hence, with the direct crystallization method of MSG production, there is unification of the whole process from raw materials to final product.

The yield of MSG from the fermentation broth after purification is 65-70 wt %. This is an excellent and effective production system with an attractive process economy if the mother liquor by-product can be used as a fertilizer. As already mentioned, yield is strongly affected by the ratio of L-glutamic acid concentration to total solids in the fermentation broth. This ratio varies, depending upon the purity of raw material sugar and the fermentation efficiency. Whereas the latter depends on the strain of bacteria used, purity of the sugar depends on the quality of the raw material.

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