to bind DNA and to separate idiotypes, which will be discussed in "Secondary Purification Steps." With the recent development by several companies of more robust versions of this resin, its use for large-scale production of antibodies is bound to expand.

Size-Exclusion Chromatography. SEC is typically a low-resolution, low-throughput technique. Thus, in general, it is more often used for buffer exchange or polishing steps. However, there are instances when it can be used for initial purification. This is the case when dealing with very large antibodies such as IgM and IgA. IgM is typically a penta-mer, with a weight nearing 1 million Da. IgA is usually found as a dimer, with a weight of about 300,000 Da. Thus, these are much larger than most contaminating proteins and can be purified by SEC.

Other Techniques. Another technique that has seen some use is thiophilic chromatography. In this technique,

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