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where Ymf* is the true growth yield corrected for maintenance and ms is the maintenance coefficient. In this process, the product formation kinetic parameters and the bioenergetic parameters are related. Equation 6 may be written as (2)

per mole ATP, rb = 0.462, and yb = 4.291;gmax = 0.283 and ae > 2.52.

Product formation is directly linked to the specific growth rate, true growth yield corrected for maintenance, and the maintenance coefficient as shown in equations 1 to 11. Equation 3 shows that the product yield is related to the biomass yield; the largest product yields are expected when the cells are using carbon and energy primarily for maintenance and nearly all the available electrons are being converted to product. When oxygen is present, some of the available electrons in the carbon substrate are transferred to oxygen, and the product yield is reduced accordingly.

Growth kinetics, product formation rates, and product yields are affected by temperature, pressure, water activity, osmolality, oxidation-reduction potential, bioenerget-ics, and the concentrations of organic substrate, inorganic nutrients, biomass, hydrogen ions (pH), carbon dioxide, products, and electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate (2).

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