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Note: hu, human; n.k., not known; mu, murine. ^RA, research application; IP, industrial process.

Note: hu, human; n.k., not known; mu, murine. ^RA, research application; IP, industrial process.

ute to the variant (e.g., mouse) and constant (e.g., human) region of the secreted mAb. These antibodies are less immunogenic and more effective in therapeutical applications. The constant region can also be replaced with enzymes or toxins, which is useful in tumor targeting. Bispecific mAb can react with two antigens (e.g., tumor markers and specific toxic drugs) and thereby bind and destroy specific cells only (34). Details of techniques for the construction of these new generations of hybridomas, bio-reactor systems, purification, and applications are reviewed in James (35), Larrick and Balint (36), and Merten (37).

Because of the rapid development of new cell lines in this area, only a few examples were selected for inclusion in Table 3. Table 4 overviews the various applications for mAb and the potential for future developments in animal cell biotechnology.

Myeloma cell lines such as J558 L, NS0, SP2/0, or P3X63Ag.653 are not only malignant fusion partners used for the generation of hybridomas, but are also suitable for the production of recombinant proteins (40,41). Once again, it can be attributed to the tremendous new techniques of genetic engineering that opened the door for myeloma-based expression systems leading to a new branch in animal cell technology. These naturally secretory cells can be grown to high cell densities and are robust and relatively easy to transfect (42). With the use of recombinant myeloma cell lines, raising of antigen-specific B cells as prerequisite for the production of hybridomas and finally mAb can be avoided, and time- as well as cost-consuming optimization procedures can be limited.

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