Gravitational acceleration, 9.8 m/s2


Product yield on substrate, g/g


Catalytic rate constant, h_1


Cell yield on oxygen, g DCW/g O2

Cell yield on substrate, g DCW/g Concentration of contaminant microorganism, g DCW/m3

Specific growth rate, h 1

Specific rate of cell lysis or endogenous metabolism, h_1

Adjustable parameter

Residence time, h

R Factor, area equivalent for a centrifuge

Angular velocity

Recycle ratio

Density, kg/m3

Viscosity, kg/m x s

Empirical function of eP

Product formation parameters, g product/g DCW and g product/g

DCW x h, respectively

Maximum specific growth rate, h_1

Volume fraction of particles

Fractional substrate conversion

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