timation of mixing so that the addition rates can be suitably adjusted. Deviation of the pH or temperature from the permitted range may cause a damage to the microorganism, in addition to its effect on the growth and production rates. Moreover, a knowledge of the mixing characteristics is required for modeling and interpreting mass and heat transfer data.

A parameter used frequently to represent mixing in reactors is the mixing time (tm). It has the disadvantage that it is specific to the reactor design and scale, but it is easy to measure and understand. Mixing time is defined as the time required to achieve the desired degree of homogeneity (usually 90-95%) after the injection of an inert tracer pulse into the reactor. The so-called degree of homogeneity (I), is given by:

Brew Your Own Beer

Brew Your Own Beer

Discover How To Become Your Own Brew Master, With Brew Your Own Beer. It takes more than a recipe to make a great beer. Just using the right ingredients doesn't mean your beer will taste like it was meant to. Most of the time it’s the way a beer is made and served that makes it either an exceptional beer or one that gets dumped into the nearest flower pot.

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