Microbial Production

Although various kinds of microorganisms accumulate amino acids in culture medium, only bacteria have sufficient productivity to warrant the commercial production of amino acids. Since amino acids are essential components of microbial cells, and their biosyntheses are teleologically regulated to maintain an optimal level, they are normally synthesized in limited quantities and subject to negative feedback regulation. It is necessary to overcome this regulation to achieve overproduction of amino acids. Microbial amino acid overproduction can be achieved using the following procedures and has been attained by introducing mutation techniques (4):

1. Stimulation of cellular uptake of the starting materials

2. Hindrance of the side reaction

3. Stimulation of the formation and the activity of the enzymes for biosynthesis

4. Inhibition or reduction of the enzyme concerned with the degradation of the amino acids produced

5. Stimulation of the excretion of the product into the extracellular space

L-Glutamate production by a wild-type strain of Cory-nebacterium was explained by the release of L-glutamate regulation and efflux of L-glutamate through the cell membrane by the limitation of biotin or the addition of penicillin ester of fatty acids to the culture medium (5).

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