Fung and Hartman (40) developed a variety of miniaturized microbiological methods for the identification and enumeration of aerobic bacteria. The entire concept and system were adapted for miniaturized anaerobic bacteriology simply by operating the procedures in an anaerobic chamber (60,61). Guy Miller and T.G. Nagaraja at Kansas State University (personal communication, 1987) found that miniaturized techniques could be used for studying rumen bacteria effectively. The advantages of miniaturized techniques are savings of material, space, time of incubation and operation, and labor. Another advantage is the flexibility of the system to be able to adapt to many different laboratories, especially for environmental and industrial settings where commercial diagnostic kits are not available for specialized organisms.
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