N

Design variables

Area ratio

Reactor height

Bottom clearance

Separator design

Figure 5. Interaction between geometric and fluid dynamic variables in an ALR. Adapted from Merchuk et al. (37).

2. Churn-turbulent regime, in which a wide range of bubble sizes coexist within a very turbulent liquid

The churn-turbulent regime can be produced from homogeneous bubbly flow by increasing the gas flow rate. Another way of obtaining a churn-turbulent flow zone is by starting from slug flow and increasing the liquid turbulence, by increasing either the flow rate or the diameter of the reactor, as can be seen in Figure 6 (41). The slug-flow configuration is important only as a situation to be avoided at all costs, because large bubbles bridging the entire tower cross-section offer very poor capacity for mass transfer.

Downcomer. In the downcomer, the liquid flows downward and may carry bubbles down with it. For bubbles to

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