Nomenclature

a Gas-biophase interfacial area per unit bioreactor volume

A,c Constants in mass-transfer correlation D zf/eb Yk = dimensionless liquid flow rate e Hold-up f Liquid outflow rate per unit bioreactor volume F YS'm/zymX = dimensionless product-inhibition number g Volumetric gas outflow rate per unit bioreactor volume (the VVM gas rate) G k1aRT/Hg = dimensionless mass-transfer-

effectiveness number h Gauge pressure (atm) at gas inlet H Henry's law constant k Cell maintenance coefficient k1 Gas-to-biophase mass-transfer coefficient L Bioreactor height ni Mole fraction of contaminant in feed gas p Partial pressure (atm) of contaminant in effluent q Specific consumption rate of contaminant R Gas constant

S Dissolved concentration in biophase Ss Stationary phase contaminant concentration

(concentration at which i = 0) S'm Product concentration that totally inhibits metabolism T Outlet gas temperature Ug Superficial gas velocity at bioreactor outlet U Superficial liquid velocity in a trickle bed X gnJkebRT = maximum possible cell concentration in biophase x 1 — plnt = fractional removal of contaminant w Evaporation rate per unit bioreactor volume y Mole of nutrient consumed or product formed per unit of contaminant metabolized Y Cell-yield coefficient z Cell concentration in liquid effluent/cell concentration in biophase y Available electrons per carbon equivalent of biomass l Specific growth rate of biomass Subscripts i Inlet conditions j Any nutrient or product m Metabolic product x Biomass

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