Racemization proceeds, in general, in alkali solutions as shown in Figure 2, such that a-H liberated from a-C by a base-catalyzed reaction yields carboion (C-—C=O) on aC, which equilibrates with a,b unsaturated from C—C— O-. In the case of acidic solutions, racemization proceeds the same as in alkali, via carboion, C-—C—OH-, which equilibrates with a,b unsaturated from C—C—O-.

Racemization in neutral solution occurs at 190 °C with the loss of taste characteristics after the formation of the lactam and pyroglutamic acid. This reaction is very slow, but the equilibrium shifts toward the lactam rather than

Brew Your Own Beer

Brew Your Own Beer

Discover How To Become Your Own Brew Master, With Brew Your Own Beer. It takes more than a recipe to make a great beer. Just using the right ingredients doesn't mean your beer will taste like it was meant to. Most of the time it’s the way a beer is made and served that makes it either an exceptional beer or one that gets dumped into the nearest flower pot.

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