Racemization

Racemization proceeds, in general, in alkali solutions as shown in Figure 2, such that a-H liberated from a-C by a base-catalyzed reaction yields carboion (C-—C=O) on aC, which equilibrates with a,b unsaturated from C—C— O-. In the case of acidic solutions, racemization proceeds the same as in alkali, via carboion, C-—C—OH-, which equilibrates with a,b unsaturated from C—C—O-.

Racemization in neutral solution occurs at 190 °C with the loss of taste characteristics after the formation of the lactam and pyroglutamic acid. This reaction is very slow, but the equilibrium shifts toward the lactam rather than

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