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(i) Hanging sleeve of a high-density culture using a photobioreactor employing novel light-diffusing optical fibers (LDOF). Efficient light distribution was achieved as a result of a bundle of LDOFs passing through the cell culture (17). The ratio of surface area to volume was very high (692/m), and uniform illumination in the cell culture was obtained. Takano et al. (44) cultured a marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. in the LDOF photobioreactor, achieving a biomass yield of 2g/L/day.

Photobioreactors are less economical but have many superior aspects to the open culture systems mentioned earlier. Thus, they are limited to high-value products. Suitable culture systems have to be adopted according to the target products and available environmental conditions.

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