In aerobic fermentations, oxygen is the final electron acceptor in substrate metabolism, enabling a correlation between the rates of oxygen uptake and heat generation. The following empirical correlation (15) gives QmET (kcal/h) as a function of specific oxygen consumption, qO2 (mmol O2/L x h), and V(l):

where the oxygen demand during exponential growth can be expressed using the cellular yield on oxygen, YX/O2 (g DCW/g O2).

Table 2 gives values of YHi and YX/O2 for bacterial growth that can be used to estimate oxygen demand and metabolic heat generation. Notice that the more reduced substrates result in greater o2 demand and heat generation and subsequently a larger burden on the o2 transfer and heat exchange system.

Heat exchange systems are chosen based on the expected heat exchanger duty, influence on fluid mixing, im

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