Zf

I Cooling

' water

Fermentation i broth T Drain

50-kL Fermentation

Figure 7. Example of an industrial fermenter. R/M, revolutions per minute; u, diameter; all distances in millimeters. Source. From Y. Su and K. Yamada, Bull. Agric. Chem., 1960, cited in Ref. 17.

which auxotrophic strains are used, the cost of the required nutrient also is a major factor. Thus, it is necessary to use a strain requiring a low concentration of such a nutrient. Production of pharmaceutical-grade neutral amino acids requires difficult separation of analogous amino acids by-produced to the level at which they contribute to increased cost. To overcome this problem, it is necessary to minimize by-produced amino acids to a level at which purification of the desired product is not affected, and to this end, breeding of suitable strains and improvement of fermentation processes that result in few by-products are important. The cost of utilities supporting fermentation is generally high because although the fermentation is carried out mostly at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure, the following factors create additional demands.

1. Sterility must be secured.

2. Aerobic fermentation is involved.

3. It is necessary to more intensely concentrate the fermentation broth because of low product concentration compared to other processes.

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