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Chemical Equilibrium

In a distillation column, each section rectifying or stripping can be effectively represented by a counter-current cascade of flashes. This cascade can be simplified for the purpose of estimating feasible product compositions, by removing the counter-current recycling of liquid and vapor flows among successive flash units, leaving a co-current arrangement shown in Fig. 6.7. The compositions of the liquid and vapor streams in the flash cascade arrangement are close to those of the...

Mtbe

0 unstable node -----d,Wlcil uilibTlum Fig. 5.16. Residue curve maps for heterogeneously catalyzed MTBE synthesis at operating pressure p 0.8 MPa for different Damkohler numbers 8 , reprinted from Chem. Eng. Sci., Vol 52, Thiel, Sundmacher and Hoffmann, Pages 993-1005, Copyright 1997, with permission from Elsevier Science 0 unstable node -----d,Wlcil uilibTlum Fig. 5.16. Residue curve maps for heterogeneously catalyzed MTBE synthesis at operating pressure p 0.8 MPa for different Damkohler...

E

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Fig. 1. Journal publications on reactive and catalytic distillation over the last three decades according to the Science Citation Index and patents in these fields according to the Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt www.depatis.net Moreover, since RD is going to become a more established technology, it has found its way into classic chemical engineering encyclopedias 11, 12 , However, a comprehensive volume covering all aspects of application, design,...

Industrial Applications of Reactive Distillation

Reactive Distillation

Reactive distillation RD is a combination of separation and reaction in a single vessel. The concept of combining these two important functions for enhancement of overall performance is not new to the chemical engineering world. The recovery of ammonia in the classic Solvay process for soda ash of the 1860s may be cited as probably the first commercial application of RD, as shown in Fig. 1.1. Many old processes have made use of this concept. The production of propylene oxide, ethylene...

Neq

Model 4 Mass amp heat transport S reaction kinetics at these stages. Reaction kinetics are the same as in Model 2, Murphree efficiencies are used to give the desired separation capacity. In the rate-based approach Model 4 heat and mass transfer are directly taken into account using two-film theory. Multicomponent diffusion is modeled with the Maxwell-Stefan equations. Bulk reaction kinetics are included as in Models 2 and 3. Obviously, parameterizing these models meaningfully requires a very...

Formaldehyde Water Methanol Ternary Azeotrope

Poly Oxy Methylene

Fig. 4.10 RD lines full lines and isotherms dashed lines in the system ethanol acetic acid ethyl acetate water at 1 bar. The reactive azeotrope and the temperature minimum do not coincide as a result of thermodynamic inconsistency 4.4.2.5 Formaldehyde Water Methanol Intrinsically Reactive Complex Mixture Formaldehyde is one of the most important CI building blocks in the chemical industry and is the basis for a large variety of products. It is usually handled in aqueous solutions, which...

Ind. Eng.chem .res.2001 40 1566-1574

Poly oxymethylene hemiformal with n CH2O segments component index phase index chemical equilibrium constant thermodynamically consistent mass action law chemical equilibrium constant chemical equilibrium constant like term in activity coefficients molality 1 mol kg solvent middle group methanol methyl acetate methylene glycol poly oxymethylene glycol with n CH2O segments number of CH2O segments number of components number of theoretical stages number of stirred tank reactors not in phase...

O

Mass transfer kinetics chemical equilibrium mass transfer kinetics reaction kinetics Fig. 3.5. Model complexity in simulation of reactive distillation 3 Application of Reactive Distillation and Strategies in Process Design 55 3.3.2.1 Catalyst Selection and Reaction Kinetics By analogy with MTBE synthesis, the decomposition of MTBE is also an acid-catalyzed and equilibrium-limited reaction. Ion-exchange resins were found to be suitable for this reaction. Besides catalyst activity and...