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alcohols + ammonia = amine + water

in the presence of hydrogen and hydrogénation catalyst

better selectivity towards the desired amine

[85]

Alcoholysis diacetate ester of polytetramethylene ether + alkanol = polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) + alkanol acetate ester

alkali metal oxide or alkaline earth metal oxide; in the presence of hot methanol

PTMEG is used to make polyesters, polyurethanes etc.; complete conversion of diester.

[86]

Neutralization (protonation of organic bases)

pyridines + carboxylic acids = salt

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