isobutene + water = tert butyl alcohol

cationic exchange resin

to overcome equilibrium limitation

[43, 44]

hydration of propylene to isopropanol

cationic exchange resin

to overcome equilibrium limitation


hydration of isoamylene to tert-amyl alcohol

Amberlyst-15 (catalytic-bales)

enhanced yield and selectivity


hydration of cyclohexene to cyclohexanol


surpass equilibrium conversion

Catalyst/column internals etc. Remarks on motives and achievements


Alkylation/trans-alkylation/dealkylation benzene + propylene = cumene m-xylene (MX) + di-tert-butyl benzene (TBB) = tert butyl m-xylene (TBMX) + tert-butyl benzene and TBB + MX = TBMX + benzene benzene + ethylene/propylene = alkyl benzene benzene (from refinery stream) + ethylene/propylene = alkyl benzene alkylation of aromatics with C4 to Ci5 olefins and dealkylation of the alkylated product isobutane + propylene/butylene = highly branched paraffins

Union Carbide- LZY-82 molecular sieves suspended catalyst process zeolite-ß

molecular sieves

Lewis acid promoted inorganic oxide catalyst use of exotherm of reaction; high purity [48, 44] cumene suitable for dilute benzene and dilute olefin [49]

separation of tti-xylene and p-xylene [50]

suitable for dilute benzene and dilute olefin [51, 52]

to reduce amount of benzene from gasoline [53]

the product is considered to be the best motor [54] octane component of gasoline; indirect skeletal isomerization of olefins selectivity for C7/C8 branched alkanes [55]

Isomerization a-isophorone = ß-isophorone butene-2 = butene-1

butene-1 = butene-2 n-paraffin to iso-paraffins adipic acid, ZSM-5, alumina alumina-supported palladium oxide standard hydrogénation catalyst

Chlorinated alumina catalyst, presence of hydrogen (< 8 bar)

to surpass the equilibrium conversion [56]

to upgrade C4 stream and get high conversion [57]

for separation of isobutylene from C4 stream [58]

To increase the octane value of paraffin stock [59]

Chlorination dichlorobenzene to trichlorobenzene dichlorodimethyl silane to dichloro (chloromethyl) silane photochlorination to increase selectivity towards trichlorobenzene [60] increased yields towards monochlorinated [61]



Catalyst/column internals etc. Remarks on motives and achievements


Hydrogenation/hydrodesulfurization/dehydrogenation hydrogénation of alkyl anthraquinone hydrogénation of benzene to cyclohexane hydrogénation of AM S to cumene alumina supported Ni catalyst palladium oxide supported on alumina, carbon, or silica hydrogénation of mesityl oxide to methyl isobutyl ketone bifunctional catalyst: cation ex-

hydrodesulfurization of vacuum gas oil hydrogénation of butadiene hydrogénation of isophorone to trimethylcyclohexanol (TMP)

dehydrogenation of isopropanol to acetone hydrogénation of acytelene hydrogénation of aniline to cyclohexylamine change resin with palladium/ nickel hydrogénation catalyst with acidic support alumina supported palladium oxide in manufacture of hydrogen peroxide [62]

avoids formation of methyl cyclopentane and [63, 64] cracking products; used for removal of benzene from light reformate removal of impurities of AMS in cumene based [65] phenol plant; side chain hydrogénation is prominent in reactive distillation than ring hydrogénation to surpass equilibrium limitations; column [66]

uses acetone and hydrogen as feed; acetone is dimerised and dehydrated in the same column to give mesityl oxide.

mild conditions compared to trickle bed reactor [67, 68, 69]

selectivity for butene-1 [57]

simultaneous separation of TMP ; in-situ cata- [70] lyst washing in chemical reaction heat pump system [71]

for removal of butadiene from crude C4 stream [72]

high conversion and less formation of dicyclo- [73] hexyl amine methanol from synthesis gas copper/zinc/alumina better temperature control and improved yields [74]

in the presence of an inert solvent (C7-C12)


Catalyst/column internals etc.

Remarks on motives and achievements


Metathesis/disproportionation butene-1 = propylene + pentene or butene-1 = ethylene + trans hexene-2

activated metal oxide

to surpass equilibrium limitation, increase in selectivity and operation under mild conditions


Condensation of aldehydes formaldehyde to trioxane

strong acid catalyst hydrophobic shape selective (modified ZSM-5)

to enhance conversion

[76, 77]


Oligomerization of C4 iso-olefms oligomerization of linear butenes oligomerization of dienes in C4 to Cs from FCC

solid phosphoric acid, cation exchange resins acid catalyst; Ni-based catalyst

Al-silicates or ion exchangers

to produce octane boosting oligomers; alternative to HF alkylation process to avoid formation of CJ6 oligomers removal of diene impurity, an alternative to hydrogénation of etherified C4-C5 stream


Production of diethanol amine monoethanolamine + ethylene oxide = diethanolamine (DEA)

no catalyst or ion exchange resins

high selectivity towards DEA


Carbonylation methanol/dimethyl ether + CO = acetic acid

homogeneous system

production of high purity acetic acid


Addition of amines to aldehydes/ketones primary amine + mesityl oxide = acetone + imine acroelin + substituted anilines = Schiff s base

mineral acid

separation of primary amine from secondaiy amines as the later has no reactivity for mesityl oxide imine can be hydrolysed back to primary amine to facilitate the separation aldehyde impurity from desired product (e. g., acrylonitrile)



Catalyst/column internals etc.

Remarks on motives and achievements



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