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Reboiler Condenser

Figure 1.4 Temperature profile.

give small specific reaction rates that would require very large liquid holdups (or amounts of catalyst) to achieve the required conversion. In contrast, a high temperature may give a very small chemical equilibrium constant (for exothermic reversible reactions), which makes it more difficult to drive the reaction to produce products. High temperatures may also promote undesirable side reactions. Thus, selecting the optimum pressure in a reactive distillation column is very important. This will be illustrated in subsequent chapters.

Reactive distillation is also different from conventional distillation in that there are both product compositions and reaction conversion specifications. The many design degrees of freedom in a reactive distillation column must be adjusted to achieve these specifications while optimizing some objective function such as total annual cost (TAC). These design degrees of freedom include pressure, reactive tray holdup, number of reactive trays, location of reactant feedstreams, number of stripping trays, number of rectifying trays, reflux ratio, and reboiler heat input.

Another design aspect of reactive distillation that is different from conventional is tray holdup. Holdup has no effect on the steady-state design of a conventional column. It certainly affects dynamics but not steady-state design. Column diameter is determined from maximum vapor-loading correlations after vapor rates have been determined that achieve the desired separation. Typical design specifications are the concentration of the heavy key component in the distillate and the concentration of the light key component in the bottoms. However, holdup is very important in reactive distillation because reaction rates directly depend on holdup (or the amount of catalyst) on each tray. This means that the

holdup must be known before the column can be designed and before the column diameter is known. As a result, the design procedure for reactive distillation is iterative. A tray holdup is assumed and the column is designed to achieve the desired conversion and product purities. The diameter of the column is calculated from maximum vapor-loading correlations. Then the required height of liquid on the reactive trays to give the assumed tray holdup is calculated. Liquid heights greater than 10-15 cm (4-6 in.) are undesirable because of hydraulic pressure-drop limitations. Thus, if the calculated liquid height is too large, a new and smaller tray holdup is assumed and the design calculations repeated. An alternative, which may be more expensive in terms of capital cost, is to make the column diameter larger than that required by vapor loading.

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