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aA=bB aA+bB=cC aA=bB+cC aA+bB=cC+dD two-stage three-stage Reaction Types

Figure 1.7 Percentage of different reaction types using reactive distillation in the literature.

aA=bB aA+bB=cC aA=bB+cC aA+bB=cC+dD two-stage three-stage Reaction Types

Figure 1.7 Percentage of different reaction types using reactive distillation in the literature.

A literature search using Compendex showed some interesting chronological features. The search was limited to only journal articles in English. From 1969 to 1994 there were only 35 citations in reactive distillation design and a mere six in reactive distillation control. From 1995 to 2007 there were 435 citations in reactive distillation design and 106 in reactive distillation control. This clearly indicates the recent level of interest, particularly in control.

For reactive distillation, a literature survey shows a total of 236 reaction systems. If these are classified into reaction types, 91 systems belong to the aA + bB = cC + dD class (e.g., A + B = C + D, A + 2B = C + 2D, etc.), 60 are of the form of the general aA + bB = cC class, 21 systems belong to the aA = bB + cC class, and 18 of them are of the form aA = bB. The remaining 33 reaction systems fall into the category of a two-stage reaction (e.g., A + B = C + D and B + C = D + E)ora three-stage reaction (e.g., A + B = C, C + B = D, D + B = E). These are illustrated in Figure 1.7. A complete listing of these reactions is given in the Appendix.

There are four books that deal with reactive distillation, among other subjects:

1. Distillation, Principles and Practice by Stichlmair and Fair5

2. Conceptual Design of Distillation Systems by Doherty and Malone3

3. Reactive Distillation—Status and Future Directions by Sundmacher and Kienle6

4. Integrated Reaction and Separation Operations by Schmidt-Traub and Gorak7

These books deal primarily with the steady-state design of reactive distillation columns. Conceptual approximate design approaches are emphasized. There is little treatment of rigorous design approaches using commercial simulators. The issues of dynamics and control

5J. G. Stichlmair and J. R. Fair, Distillation, Principles and Practice, Wiley-VCH, New York, 1998. K. Sundmacher and A. Kienle, Editors, Reactive Distillation—Status and Future Directions, Wiley-VCH,

New York, 2003.

7H. Schmidt-Traub and A. Gorak, Integrated Reaction and Separation Operations, Springer, New York, 2006.

structure development are not covered. Few quantitative economic comparisons of conventional multiunit processes with reactive distillation are provided. Schmidt-Traub and Gorak discuss the control of a batch reactive distillation column and give experimental results. Some aspects of the control of reactive distillation systems are discussed in Distillation Design and Control Using Aspen Simulation by Luyben.8

8W. L. Luyben, Distillation Design and Control Using Aspen Simulation, Wiley, New York, 2006, Chapter 9.

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