Professional Excel Templates
To run the program the following data in the spreadsheet are updated. The distribution of various crudes to crude distillation units (CDUs) and their operation mode is decided by the user the spreadsheet program computes the flow rates and properties of various crude cuts on the basis of crude assays data and the unit test runs.
All of the group bond atom methods examined here were set up on spreadsheets since their application was the same regardless of the property and component. Some methods required larger data bases than others, but implementation and execution for new substances and properties would be straightforward. It is also possible to obtain a complete suite of estimation methods in the program Cranium (1998). The Constantinou Gani method for the broadest set of properties is available directly from CAPEC (1999). It is expected that methods of currently limited application, such as the Marrero Pardillo approach, will be expanded to include other properties. There are still enough errors and limitations in the methods that new research will continue with this approach. It is likely that an individual user with a typical individual computer will be able to use both current and future versions of these methods.
The process details include process flowsheets, process description, chemistry involved, detailed operating conditions, process yields and utilities. Among the refinery operations and practices presented are product blending, refinery inventory forecasts, spreadsheet and LP modeling of refineries, and methods for pricing crude oil, petroleum products, and intermediate stocks.
The design calculations presented in this section are relatively simple and usually can be done by using a calculator or spreadsheet. In many cases, the calculations are explained through design diagrams. It is recognized that most engineers today will perform rigorous, detailed calculations using process simulators. The design procedures presented in this section are intended to be complementary to the rigorous computerized calculations by presenting approximate estimates and insight into the essential elements of absorption and stripping operations.
In a given refinery, where the maximum number of gasoline blend components and their properties are known, it is possible to develop an accurate blending spreadsheet program, using the individual blendstock properties and the binary blend interaction coefficients. The only additional laboratory work required is the determination of the properties RON, MON, and ASTM distillation of all possible binary blends for a given number of blend components.
We've discussed vapor pressures, and how you can calculate it if you know the number of mols, the volume and the temperature of the vapor. It would be tiresome to have to do this calculation every time you wanted to know what the partial pressure of a substance is at some temperature. The following equation, easily programmed into a spreadsheet, will give a value directly, allowing us to easily determine how a liquid vapor or solid vapor system behaves. The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation is
Material balance for the diesel desulfurizer is taken up next. The spreadsheet displays the volume and properties of various diesel streams from the CDU (light diesels), VDU (light-vacuum gas oil, LVGO), and FCCU (light-cycle gas oil, LCGO). Light cycle gas oil must be hydrotreated to send it to diesel pool because of product stability considerations.
Long-term process planning studies may also be done by hand when no LP model of the refinery in question is available and putting together an LP model and testing it takes more time than a simple hand balance. Hand balancing is done on a personal computer (PC) with a spreadsheet program. The spreadsheet simulates a typical refinery flow diagram. Each box on the spreadsheet corresponds to a refinery unit. Each unit is represented by a performance equation that relates the output of the unit to change in the input or its operating conditions. The equations need not be linear.
Chapter 11 describes the procedures for product blending. Chapter 12 presents the procedure for preparing a refinery material balance using a spreadsheet program. Chapter 13 describes the general principles of building a refinery LP model. Chapter 14 discusses the mechanism of pricing petroleum products, including intermediate streams and products. Chapter 15 describes the concept of a definitive operating plan for the refinery during an operating period.
An example of the interaction coefficient method spreadsheet for a multicomponent blend follows. We want to determine the RON, MON, and ASTM distillation of a blend of these components The number of binary blend components determines how many binary blends are possible. Hence, for a six-component blend, 15 binary blends are possible. All the 15 binary blends are made in the laboratory and their properties determined for computing the interaction coefficient for each binary blend. Once the binary interaction coefficients are known, the properties for any blend composition can be determined by means of the blending equation. The calculations are facilitated by means of a spreadsheet program.
Stream qualities, such as density, sulfur, octane number, smoke point, and pour point, can be obtained from the same source, such as crude assay data or results of the latest test runs on different units. To minimize the stock balancing calculations, experience and engineering judgment are required to decide which qualities would be most restrictive and control the stock balance. For example, if the diesel end point from a given crude is determined to meet the pour point specifications, the sulfur specification may not be a problem and need not be calculated. Often, a stock balance has to be calculated several times. The effort of laying out the calculations and including all necessary yields and stream qualities in a spreadsheet can save considerable time.
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