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This chapter presents the thermodynamic fundamentals closely related with special distillation processes, which may facilitate readers to understand the separation principle discussed in the subsequent chapters. Some novel contents, which are commonly not involved in many classic thermodynamic texts, but necessary for the understanding, such as salt effect, nonequilibrium thermodynamic analysis and multi-component mass transfer, are covered. In accordance with the step-by-step rule, the section of vapor-liquid phase equilibrium is present at the beginning, and thus there is a little overlapping with common texts.
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