where

In Eq. (53), ¡j.p is dipole moment (debyes), Pc is critical pressure (atm), and Tc is critical temperature (K).

The constant b in Eq. (50) is zero for components exhibiting no hydrogen bonding, e.g. ketones, aldehydes, nitrides and ethers. And b usually ranges from 0.04 to 0.06 for hydrogen-bond components, e.g. alcohols, water and organic acids.

For multi-component mixtures, the most important is to derive the interaction Virials coefficient B, in order to calculate Bm. The simple way is by employing Eqs. (47) or (50). But for this purpose, the combination rules must be devised to obtain Tdj, Pd. and of..

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