where V and Lnt+1 are initial values, KC and T are respectively feedback-controller gTain and feedback-reset time for integral action, and E is the error or deviation from the set point as given by
These differential equations are readily solved, as shown by Luyben (op. cit.), by simple Euler numerical integration, starting from an initial steady state, as determined, e.g., by the McCabe-Thiele method, followed by some prescribed disturbance such as a step change in feed composition. Typical results for the initial steady-state conditions, fixed conditions, controller and hydraulic parameters, and disturbance given in Table 13-32 are listed in Table 13-33.
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